Từ chối Holocaust – Wikipedia

Khước từ tội diệt chủng người Do Thái trong Thế chiến II

Từ chối Holocaust là hành động từ chối diệt chủng người Do Thái trong Holocaust trong Thế chiến II. [1] Tuyên bố từ chối Holocaust bao gồm Giải pháp từ chối của Đức Quốc xã. chỉ nhằm mục đích trục xuất người Do Thái khỏi Reich và không bao gồm việc tiêu diệt chúng; rằng chính quyền Đức Quốc xã đã không sử dụng các trại hủy diệt và phòng chứa khí để giết người hàng loạt; hoặc rằng số người Do Thái thực sự bị giết thấp hơn đáng kể so với con số 5 đến 6 triệu được chấp nhận trong lịch sử, thường là khoảng một phần mười của con số đó. [2][3][4] Bởi vì phủ nhận Holocaust là một khía cạnh phổ biến của tuyên truyền phân biệt chủng tộc, nó được coi là nghiêm trọng vấn đề xã hội ở nhiều nơi xảy ra và là bất hợp pháp ở một số nước châu Âu và Israel. Từ chối Holocaust được tài trợ bởi một số chính phủ Trung Đông, bao gồm cả Iran và Syria.

Ở một số quốc gia hậu Xô Viết, những người từ chối Holocaust không phủ nhận thực tế vụ giết người hàng loạt của người Do Thái, nhưng họ phủ nhận một số yếu tố quốc gia hoặc khu vực của Holocaust. [5] Các học giả sử dụng thuật ngữ từ chối để mô tả quan điểm và phương pháp luận của những kẻ chối bỏ Holocaust để phân biệt chúng với những người sửa đổi lịch sử hợp pháp, những người thách thức những diễn giải chính thống của lịch sử bằng cách sử dụng các phương pháp lịch sử đã được thiết lập. [6] Từ chối Holocaust thường không chấp nhận từ chối thay vào đó là các hoạt động của họ và sử dụng uyển ngữ chủ nghĩa xét lại . [7] Các phương pháp luận của Holocaust thường dựa trên một kết luận được xác định trước mà bỏ qua các bằng chứng lịch sử áp đảo ngược lại. [8] 19659005] Hầu hết những người từ chối Holocaust đều tuyên bố, rõ ràng hoặc ngầm định rằng Holocaust là một trò lừa bịp hoặc tốt nhất là một sự cường điệu hóa phát sinh từ một kẻ lừa đảo Do Thái có chủ ý tinh thần được thiết kế để thúc đẩy sự quan tâm của người Do Thái bằng chi phí của người khác. [9] Vì lý do này, từ chối Holocaust thường được coi là một lý thuyết âm mưu chống đối [10] [11]

Thuật ngữ và từ nguyên sửa ]

Những người từ chối Holocaust thích coi công việc của họ là chủ nghĩa xét lại lịch sử, và đối tượng được gọi là "người từ chối". [7] Giáo sư Đại học Emory Deborah Lipstadt đã viết rằng: "Sự lựa chọn của người từ chối Tên xét lại để mô tả bản thân là biểu thị cho chiến lược cơ bản của họ về sự lừa dối và xuyên tạc và về nỗ lực của họ để thể hiện mình là nhà sử học hợp pháp tham gia vào thực tiễn truyền thống soi sáng quá khứ. "[12] Các học giả cho rằng sự sai lệch này vì các phương pháp phủ nhận Holocaust khác nhau. từ những sửa đổi lịch sử hợp pháp. [13] Chủ nghĩa xét lại lịch sử hợp pháp được giải thích trong một nghị quyết được thông qua bởi Khoa Lịch sử Đại học Duke, tháng 11 8, 1991, và in lại trong Duke Chronicle ngày 13 tháng 11 năm 1991 để trả lời một quảng cáo do Ủy ban tranh luận mở về cuộc thảm sát của Bradley R Smith: [14]

Các nhà sử học liên tục tham gia vào sửa đổi lịch sử là chắc chắn đúng; tuy nhiên, những gì các nhà sử học làm rất khác với quảng cáo này. Sửa đổi lịch sử của các sự kiện lớn … không liên quan đến thực tế của các sự kiện này; đúng hơn, nó liên quan đến việc giải thích lịch sử của họ – nguyên nhân và hậu quả của họ nói chung.

Lipstadt viết rằng sự từ chối Holocaust hiện đại lấy cảm hứng từ nhiều nguồn khác nhau, bao gồm cả một trường phái tư tưởng sử dụng một phương pháp được thiết lập để đặt câu hỏi về chính sách của chính phủ. [15]

Năm 1992 Donald L. Niewyk đã đưa ra Một số ví dụ về cách chủ nghĩa xét lại lịch sử hợp pháp, việc kiểm tra lại lịch sử được chấp nhận và cập nhật với thông tin mới được phát hiện, chính xác hơn hoặc ít sai lệch hơn có thể được áp dụng cho nghiên cứu về Holocaust khi những sự kiện mới xuất hiện để thay đổi cách hiểu về lịch sử nó:

Với những đặc điểm chính của Holocaust có thể thấy rõ cho tất cả mọi người trừ những kẻ mù quáng cố ý, các nhà sử học đã chuyển sự chú ý của họ sang các khía cạnh của câu chuyện mà bằng chứng không đầy đủ hoặc mơ hồ. Đây không phải là những vấn đề nhỏ bằng bất kỳ phương tiện nào, nhưng bật lên những vấn đề như vai trò của Hitler trong sự kiện, phản ứng của người Do Thái đối với cuộc đàn áp và phản ứng của những người xem cả bên trong và bên ngoài Châu Âu do Đức Quốc xã kiểm soát. [16] Ngược lại, phong trào từ chối Holocaust dựa trên cách tiếp cận dựa trên ý tưởng định trước rằng Holocaust, theo cách hiểu của lịch sử chính thống, đã không xảy ra. [8] Đôi khi được gọi là "chủ nghĩa phủ định", từ thuật ngữ Pháp négationnisme ] được giới thiệu bởi Henry Rousso, [17] Những kẻ chối bỏ Holocaust cố gắng viết lại lịch sử bằng cách giảm thiểu, phủ nhận hoặc đơn giản là bỏ qua các sự kiện thiết yếu. Koenraad Elst viết:

Chủ nghĩa tiêu cực có nghĩa là phủ nhận tội ác lịch sử chống lại loài người. Nó không phải là một sự diễn giải lại các sự kiện đã biết, mà là sự phủ nhận các sự kiện đã biết. Thuật ngữ phủ định đã đạt được tiền tệ như là một phong trào để từ chối một tội ác cụ thể chống lại loài người, nạn diệt chủng của Đức quốc xã đối với người Do Thái vào năm 1941, 4545, còn được gọi là Holocaust (tiếng Hy Lạp: đốt cháy hoàn toàn) hoặc Shoah (Tiếng Do Thái: thảm họa). Chủ nghĩa tiêu cực chủ yếu được xác định với nỗ lực viết lại lịch sử theo cách mà thực tế của Holocaust bị bỏ qua. [18]

Bối cảnh [ chỉnh sửa ]

Nỗ lực che giấu hồ sơ lịch sử [ chỉnh sửa ]

Những nỗ lực của Đức [ chỉnh sửa ]

Trong khi Chiến tranh thế giới thứ hai vẫn đang diễn ra, Đức quốc xã đã hình thành một kế hoạch dự phòng. trong trường hợp thất bại, họ sẽ thực hiện phá hủy hoàn toàn các hồ sơ của Đức. [19]

Các nhà sử học đã ghi lại bằng chứng rằng thất bại của Đức sắp xảy ra và các nhà lãnh đạo Đức Quốc xã nhận ra rằng họ rất có thể sẽ bị bắt và mang đến thử nghiệm, nỗ lực lớn đã được thực hiện để phá hủy tất cả bằng chứng của sự hủy diệt hàng loạt. Heinrich Himmler đã chỉ thị cho các chỉ huy trại của mình phá hủy các hồ sơ, hỏa táng và các dấu hiệu hủy diệt hàng loạt khác. [20] Là một trong nhiều ví dụ, thi thể của 25.000 người Do Thái gốc Latvia mà Friedrich Jeckeln và các binh sĩ dưới quyền chỉ huy đã bắn vào Rumbula ( gần Riga) vào cuối năm 1941 đã được đào lên và đốt cháy vào năm 1943. [21] Các hoạt động tương tự đã được thực hiện tại Belzec, Treblinka và các trại tử thần khác. [20] Trong các bài phát biểu của Posen khét tiếng vào tháng 4 năm 1943, chẳng hạn như vào ngày 4 tháng 10 năm 1943 đề cập rõ ràng đến việc tiêu diệt người Do Thái ở châu Âu và tuyên bố thêm rằng nạn diệt chủng phải được giữ vĩnh viễn, bí mật: [22] [23]

Tôi cũng muốn đề cập đến rất thẳng thắn đến một vấn đề rất khó khăn. Bây giờ chúng ta có thể nói chuyện rất cởi mở về vấn đề này với nhau, và chúng ta sẽ không bao giờ thảo luận công khai về điều này. Giống như chúng tôi đã không ngần ngại vào ngày 30 tháng 6 năm 1934, để thực hiện nghĩa vụ của mình theo lệnh và đưa các đồng chí đã thất bại vào tường và xử tử họ, chúng tôi cũng không bao giờ nói về điều đó, và chúng tôi sẽ không bao giờ nói về điều đó. Chúng ta hãy cảm ơn Chúa rằng chúng ta đã có trong mình đủ bản lĩnh rõ ràng không bao giờ thảo luận về nó giữa chúng ta và chúng ta không bao giờ nói về nó. Mọi người trong chúng ta đều kinh hoàng, và mọi người đều hiểu rõ rằng chúng ta sẽ làm điều đó vào lần tới, khi lệnh được đưa ra và khi nào cần thiết. Bây giờ tôi đang đề cập đến việc sơ tán người Do Thái, để tiêu diệt người Do Thái.

Heinrich Himmler, ngày 4 tháng 10 năm 1943

Sự hợp tác của Pháp trong việc phá hủy kho lưu trữ [ chỉnh sửa ]

Ở Pháp bị chiếm đóng, tình hình đối với việc lưu giữ các hồ sơ chiến tranh là không tốt hơn nhiều, một phần là kết quả của các quy tắc bí mật của nhà nước Pháp có từ trước cuộc chiến nhằm bảo vệ chính phủ Pháp và nhà nước khỏi những tiết lộ đáng xấu hổ, và một phần để tránh sự phạm tội. Ví dụ, tại Giải phóng, Cảnh sát tỉnh đã phá hủy gần như toàn bộ kho lưu trữ khổng lồ về việc bắt giữ và trục xuất người Do Thái. [19]

Nỗ lực bảo tồn các ghi chép lịch sử [ chỉnh sửa ]

Trong chiến tranh [ chỉnh sửa ]

Một trong những nỗ lực đầu tiên để lưu lại hồ sơ lịch sử về Holocaust xảy ra trong chiến tranh, tại Pháp, nơi các hồ sơ trại thực tập Drancy được lưu giữ cẩn thận và chuyển sang Pháp mới Cục cựu chiến binh và nạn nhân chiến tranh [fr]; tuy nhiên, văn phòng sau đó đã giữ chúng trong bí mật, từ chối phát hành các bản sao sau đó, ngay cả đến Trung tâm Tài liệu Do Thái đương đại (CDJC).

Năm 1943, Isaac Schneersohn, dự đoán sự cần thiết phải có một trung tâm để ghi chép và lưu giữ ký ức về cuộc đàn áp vì lý do lịch sử và cũng hỗ trợ các yêu sách sau chiến tranh, tập hợp 40 đại diện từ các tổ chức Do Thái ở Grenoble đang bị chiếm đóng tại Ý thời gian [24] để hình thành một tài liệu trung tâm . [25] Phơi bày có nghĩa là án tử hình, và kết quả là rất ít xảy ra trước khi giải phóng. [26] Công việc nghiêm túc bắt đầu sau khi trung tâm chuyển đến Paris vào cuối năm 1944 và được đổi tên thành CDJC. [25][26]

Thời kỳ hậu chiến tranh ngay lập tức [ chỉnh sửa ]

Năm 1945, Tướng Dwight D. Eisenhower, Chỉ huy Đồng minh tối cao, dự đoán rằng một ngày nào đó Nỗ lực sẽ được thực hiện để kiểm tra lại tài liệu về tội ác của Đức Quốc xã như là tuyên truyền và thực hiện các bước chống lại nó: [27]

Cùng ngày [28] Tôi thấy trại kinh dị đầu tiên của mình. Nó nằm gần thị trấn Gotha. Tôi chưa bao giờ có thể mô tả các phản ứng cảm xúc của mình khi lần đầu tiên đối mặt với bằng chứng không thể chối cãi về sự tàn bạo của Đức quốc xã và sự coi thường tàn nhẫn đối với mọi sắc thái của sự suy đồi. Cho đến thời điểm đó tôi chỉ biết về nó nói chung hoặc thông qua các nguồn thứ cấp. Tuy nhiên, tôi chắc chắn rằng tôi chưa bao giờ trải qua cảm giác sốc như nhau.

Tôi đã đến thăm mọi ngóc ngách của trại vì tôi cảm thấy có trách nhiệm phải ở trong một vị trí từ đó trở đi tận mắt làm chứng về những điều này trong trường hợp đã từng lớn lên ở nhà niềm tin hoặc giả định rằng "những câu chuyện về sự tàn bạo của Đức Quốc xã chỉ là tuyên truyền". Một số thành viên của nhóm tham quan đã không thể trải qua thử thách. Tôi không chỉ làm như vậy mà ngay khi trở về trụ sở của Patton tối hôm đó tôi đã gửi thông tin liên lạc tới cả Washington và London, kêu gọi hai chính phủ gửi ngay cho Đức một nhóm biên tập viên báo chí và các nhóm đại diện từ các cơ quan lập pháp quốc gia. Tôi cảm thấy rằng bằng chứng phải được đặt ngay trước công chúng Mỹ và Anh theo kiểu không thể nghi ngờ hoài nghi. [29]

Eisenhower, khi tìm thấy các nạn nhân của các trại tử thần, đã ra lệnh chụp tất cả các bức ảnh có thể, và cho người dân Đức từ các ngôi làng xung quanh được đưa qua các trại và thậm chí được thực hiện để chôn cất người chết. Ông viết những điều sau đây cho Tướng George Marshall sau khi đến thăm một trại thực tập Đức gần Gotha, Đức:

Bằng chứng hình ảnh và lời khai bằng lời nói về sự đói khát, tàn nhẫn và lòng tốt đã quá sức đến nỗi khiến tôi có chút ốm yếu. Trong một căn phòng, nơi họ [there] chất đống hai mươi hoặc ba mươi người trần truồng, bị giết chết vì đói, George Patton thậm chí sẽ không bước vào. Anh ấy nói rằng anh ấy sẽ bị bệnh nếu làm như vậy. Tôi đã thực hiện chuyến thăm một cách có chủ ý, để có thể đưa ra bằng chứng trực tiếp về những điều này nếu trong tương lai, sẽ phát triển một xu hướng buộc tội những cáo buộc này chỉ đơn thuần là "tuyên truyền". [30]

] [ chỉnh sửa ]

Các thử nghiệm ở Nichberg đã diễn ra ở Đức sau cuộc chiến năm 1945 191919. Mục đích đã nêu là để phân phối công lý trong quả báo cho sự tàn bạo của chính phủ Đức. Ý định này của Đồng minh nhằm quản lý công lý sau chiến tranh đã được công bố lần đầu tiên vào năm 1943 trong Tuyên bố về tội ác tàn bạo của Đức ở Chiếm châu Âu và nhắc lại tại Hội nghị Yalta và tại Berlin năm 1945. [31] Trong khi ý định không đặc biệt là lưu giữ hồ sơ lịch sử của Holocaust, một số tài liệu cốt lõi cần thiết để khởi tố các vụ án đã được CDJC cung cấp cho họ, và phần lớn kho lưu trữ khổng lồ sau đó đã được chuyển đến CDJC sau các thử nghiệm và trở thành cốt lõi của lịch sử Holocaust trong tương lai. [32]

Các thử nghiệm ở Nichis rất quan trọng trong lịch sử, nhưng các sự kiện vẫn còn rất gần đây, truyền hình còn ở giai đoạn sơ khai và không có mặt, và có một chút tác động công khai. Có những khoảnh khắc cô lập về nhận thức cộng đồng hạn chế từ các bộ phim Hollywood như Nhật ký Anne Frank (1959) hoặc 1961 Phán quyết tại Nieders có một số cảnh quay về cảnh thực tế từ Đức Quốc xã được giải phóng các trại tập trung bao gồm các cảnh đống xác chết trần truồng được xếp thành hàng và ủi thành những hố lớn, được coi là đồ họa đặc biệt thời bấy giờ. Nhận thức của công chúng đã thay đổi khi phiên tòa xét xử Eichmann thu hút sự chú ý của thế giới trong mười lăm năm sau khi Nô-ê. [33][34]

Phiên tòa xét xử Adolf Eichmann [ chỉnh sửa ]

đưa anh ta đến Israel để ra tòa vì tội ác chiến tranh. Ý định của công tố viên trưởng Gideon Hausner không chỉ thể hiện cá nhân tội lỗi của Eichmann mà còn trình bày tài liệu về toàn bộ Holocaust, do đó tạo ra một hồ sơ toàn diện. [35] Chính phủ Israel sắp xếp cho phiên tòa xét xử nổi bật phương tiện truyền thông đưa tin. [36] Nhiều tờ báo lớn từ khắp nơi trên thế giới đã gửi phóng viên và đăng tải tin tức trên trang nhất của câu chuyện. [35] Người Israel có cơ hội xem truyền hình trực tiếp về quá trình tố tụng, và băng video được phát hàng ngày tới Hoa Kỳ Các tiểu bang được phát sóng vào ngày hôm sau. [35][37]

Lịch sử sau Thế chiến II [ chỉnh sửa ]

Trước hậu quả của chiến tranh, trước những nỗ lực tài liệu rộng lớn của các lực lượng đồng minh, một cảm giác hoài nghi đã khiến nhiều người phủ nhận các báo cáo ban đầu về Holocaust. [38] [ cần làm rõ ] Hợp nhất sự hoài nghi này là ký ức của báo giả mạo ounts of German Corpse Factory, một chiến dịch tuyên truyền tàn bạo chống Đức trong Thế chiến I, được biết đến rộng rãi là sai vào năm 1945. [39]

Trong những năm 1930, chính phủ Đức Quốc xã đã sử dụng tuyên truyền này để chống lại Người Anh, cho rằng các cáo buộc của các trại tập trung là những lời dối trá độc hại do chính phủ Anh đưa ra, và các nhà sử học Joachim Neander và Randal Marlin lưu ý rằng câu chuyện này "khuyến khích sự hoài nghi sau đó khi các báo cáo đầu tiên lưu hành về Holocaust dưới thời Hitler". [39] Victor Cavendish- Bentinck, Chủ tịch Ủy ban Tình báo hỗn hợp của Anh, lưu ý rằng những báo cáo này tương tự như "những câu chuyện về việc làm của xác người trong cuộc chiến cuối cùng để sản xuất chất béo là một lời nói dối kỳ cục"; tương tự như vậy, Thế kỷ Kitô giáo đã nhận xét rằng "Sự song song giữa câu chuyện này và câu chuyện tàn bạo của 'nhà máy xác chết' trong Chiến tranh thế giới thứ nhất là quá ấn tượng để bị bỏ qua." [40] Neander lưu ý rằng "Có thể có không còn nghi ngờ gì nữa về việc sử dụng thương mại xác chết của những người Do Thái bị sát hại đã làm xói mòn uy tín của tin tức đến từ Ba Lan và hành động trì hoãn có thể đã cứu sống nhiều người Do Thái. " [40]

The Neo- Phong trào Đức quốc xã đã được hồi sinh nhờ sự từ chối Holocaust. Số lượng nhỏ nhưng có tiếng nói của Neo-Nazis nhận ra rằng việc giải trí chế độ kiểu Hitlerite có thể là không thể, nhưng một bản sao có thể được tạo ra trong tương lai và nhận ra rằng để phục hồi chủ nghĩa phát xít cần phải làm mất uy tín của Holocaust. [41]

Harry Elmer Barnes [19659013] [ chỉnh sửa ]

Harry Elmer Barnes, trong một lần, một nhà sử học chính thống của Mỹ, đã đưa ra lập trường phủ nhận Holocaust trong những năm cuối đời. Giữa Thế chiến I và Thế chiến II, Barnes là một nhà văn phản chiến và là người lãnh đạo phong trào xét lại lịch sử. Bắt đầu từ năm 1924, Barnes hợp tác chặt chẽ với Trung tâm nghiên cứu nguyên nhân chiến tranh, một nhóm chuyên gia tư tưởng do chính phủ Đức tài trợ với mục đích duy nhất là phổ biến lập trường chính thức của chính phủ rằng Đức là nạn nhân của sự xâm lược của quân Đồng minh vào năm 1914 và rằng Hiệp ước Versailles không có giá trị về mặt đạo đức. [42] Đứng đầu là Thiếu tá Alfred von Wegerer, một nhà hoạt động völkisch tổ chức này tự coi mình là một xã hội học thuật, nhưng sau đó các nhà sử học đã mô tả nó là "một cơ quan học thuật. Chiến tranh bùng nổ. " [43]

Sau Thế chiến II, Barnes tin chắc rằng các cáo buộc chống lại Đức và Nhật Bản, bao gồm cả Holocaust, là tuyên truyền thời chiến được sử dụng để biện minh cho Hoa Kỳ 'tham gia vào Thế chiến II. Barnes tuyên bố rằng có hai tuyên bố sai lầm được đưa ra về Thế chiến II, đó là Đức bắt đầu chiến tranh vào năm 1939, và Holocaust, mà Barnes tuyên bố đã không xảy ra. [44]

Trong cuốn sách nhỏ năm 1962 , Chủ nghĩa xét lại và tẩy não Barnes tuyên bố rằng "không có bất kỳ sự phản đối hay thách thức nghiêm trọng nào đối với các câu chuyện tàn bạo và các phương thức phỉ báng khác của nhân vật và hành vi quốc gia Đức". [45] Barnes lập luận rằng là "một thất bại trong việc chỉ ra sự tàn bạo của quân Đồng minh là tàn bạo, đau đớn, phàm tục và nhiều hơn những cáo buộc cực đoan nhất đối với người Đức". [46] Ông tuyên bố rằng để biện minh cho "sự kinh hoàng và tệ nạn của Đệ nhị" Chiến tranh thế giới ", quân Đồng minh đã biến phát xít Đức thành" vật tế thần "cho những hành động sai trái của chính họ. [44]

Barnes đã trích dẫn nhà phê bình Holocaust của Pháp Paul Rassinier, người mà Barnes gọi là" nhà sử học người Pháp nổi tiếng " tiếp xúc với "e xáo trộn về những câu chuyện tàn bạo ". [46] Trong một bài viết năm 1964," Lừa đảo Zion ", được xuất bản trong Mercury của Mỹ Barnes đã viết:" Tác giả can đảm [Rassinier] người mà chúng ta phải gọi là những kẻ lừa đảo của nhà hỏa táng, các chính trị gia Israel, người đã lấy được hàng tỷ nhãn hiệu từ các xác chết không tồn tại, thần thoại và tưởng tượng, những con số đã được coi là một cách bất thường và không trung thực. "[47] Sử dụng Rassinier tuyên bố rằng Đức là nạn nhân của sự xâm lược trong cả hai năm 1914 và 1939 và các báo cáo về Holocaust là tuyên truyền để biện minh cho một cuộc chiến tranh xâm lược chống lại Đức. [46]

Bắt đầu phong trào từ chối hiện đại [ chỉnh sửa ]

Năm 1961, một nhân vật chính của Barnes, David Hoggan, xuất bản Der erzwungene Krieg ( Cuộc chiến cưỡng bức ) ở Tây Đức, nơi tuyên bố rằng Đức là nạn nhân của một Anh-Po âm mưu tàn khốc vào năm 1939. Mặc dù Der erzwungene Krieg chủ yếu liên quan đến nguồn gốc của Thế chiến II, nó cũng đã hạ thấp hoặc biện minh cho các tác động của các biện pháp chống đối của Đức Quốc xã trong giai đoạn trước năm 1939. [48] ví dụ, Hoggan biện minh cho một tỷ khổng lồ Reich – đánh dấu mức phạt áp đặt lên toàn bộ cộng đồng Do Thái ở Đức sau năm 1938 Kristallnacht như một biện pháp hợp lý để ngăn chặn cái mà ông gọi là "trục lợi Do Thái" tại chi phí của các công ty bảo hiểm Đức và cáo buộc rằng không có người Do Thái nào bị giết trong Kristallnacht (trên thực tế, 91 người Do Thái Đức đã bị giết trong Kristallnacht ). Holocaust vào năm 1969 trong một cuốn sách có tựa đề Huyền thoại về sáu triệu được xuất bản bởi Noontide Press, một nhà xuất bản nhỏ ở Los Angeles chuyên về văn học chống đối. [49] ] Năm 1964, Pa ul Rassinier xuất bản Bộ phim truyền hình của người Do Thái châu Âu . Rassinier là một người sống sót trong trại tập trung (anh ta bị giam giữ tại Hội trưởng vì đã giúp người Do Thái Pháp thoát khỏi Đức quốc xã), và những người từ chối thời hiện đại tiếp tục trích dẫn các công trình của mình như nghiên cứu học thuật đặt câu hỏi về sự thật được chấp nhận của Holocaust. Các nhà phê bình cho rằng Rassinier đã không trích dẫn bằng chứng cho tuyên bố của mình và bỏ qua thông tin mâu thuẫn với các khẳng định của mình; tuy nhiên ông vẫn có ảnh hưởng trong giới phủ nhận Holocaust vì là một trong những người từ chối đầu tiên đề xuất rằng một âm mưu rộng lớn của Zionist / Allied / Liên Xô đã làm giả Holocaust, một chủ đề sẽ được các tác giả khác chọn trong những năm sau đó.

Austin App, giáo sư văn học Anh thời trung cổ của Đại học La Salle, được coi là người từ chối chính thống đầu tiên của Mỹ. [51][52] Ứng dụng bảo vệ người Đức và Đức Quốc xã trong Thế chiến II. Ông đã xuất bản nhiều bài báo, thư và sách về sự từ chối Holocaust, nhanh chóng xây dựng một lượng người theo dõi trung thành. Công trình của App đã truyền cảm hứng cho Viện nghiên cứu lịch sử, một trung tâm ở California được thành lập vào năm 1978 với nhiệm vụ duy nhất là từ chối Holocaust. [53]

Ấn phẩm của Arthur Butz Hoax of the Twentieth Thế kỷ: Vụ kiện chống lại sự hủy diệt được cho là của Châu Âu Châu Âu năm 1976; và David Irving Cuộc chiến của Hitler năm 1977 đã đưa các cá nhân có khuynh hướng tương tự khác vào thế giới. [54] Butz là phó giáo sư kỹ thuật điện tại Đại học Tây Bắc. Vào tháng 12 năm 1978 và tháng 1 năm 1979, Robert Faurisson, giáo sư văn học người Pháp tại Đại học Lyon, đã viết hai bức thư gửi Le Monde tuyên bố rằng các buồng khí được Đức quốc xã sử dụng để tiêu diệt người Do Thái không tồn tại. Một đồng nghiệp của Faurisson, Jean-Claude Pressac, người ban đầu chia sẻ quan điểm của Faurisson, sau đó đã bị thuyết phục về bằng chứng của Holocaust trong khi điều tra các tài liệu tại Auschwitz năm 1979. Ông đã công bố kết luận của mình cùng với nhiều bằng chứng cơ bản trong cuốn sách năm 1989, Auschwitz: Kỹ thuật và vận hành các buồng khí . [55]

Henry Bienen, cựu chủ tịch của Đại học Tây Bắc, đã mô tả quan điểm của Holocaust về Arthur Holz là "sự bối rối đối với Tây Bắc" [56] Năm 2006, sáu mươi đồng nghiệp của Butz thuộc Khoa Khoa học Điện và Khoa học Máy tính đã ký một bản kiểm duyệt mô tả phủ nhận Holocaust của Butz là "một mối quan hệ với nhân loại và các tiêu chuẩn của chúng tôi với tư cách là học giả". Butz để "rời khỏi Bộ của chúng tôi và trường đại học của chúng tôi và ngừng giao dịch trên danh tiếng của chúng tôi cho sự xuất sắc trong học tập". [57]

Viện nghiên cứu lịch sử [ chỉnh sửa ]

Năm 1978 Willis Carto thành lập Viện đánh giá lịch sử (IHR), một tổ chức chuyên thách thức công khai lịch sử thường được chấp nhận của Holocaust. [58] Sáng lập của IHR được lấy cảm hứng từ Austin App, giáo sư La Salle của văn học Anh thời trung cổ và được coi là nhà từ chối holocaust lớn đầu tiên của Mỹ. [52] IHR đã tìm kiếm ngay từ đầu để thiết lập chính nó trong truyền thống xét lại lịch sử rộng rãi, bằng cách mời những người ủng hộ mã thông báo không phải là người gốc Đức Quốc xã như James J Martin và Samuel Edward Konkin III, và bằng cách quảng bá các tác phẩm của nhà xã hội Pháp Paul Rassinier và nhà sử học chống chiến tranh người Mỹ Harry Elmer Barnes, trong một nỗ lực cho thấy sự từ chối của Holocaust có cơ sở hỗ trợ vượt ra ngoài chủ nghĩa phát xít mới. IHR đã tái bản hầu hết các tác phẩm của Barnes, đã bị in ra kể từ khi ông qua đời. Mặc dù nó bao gồm các bài viết về các chủ đề khác và bán sách của các nhà sử học chính thống, phần lớn các tài liệu được xuất bản và phân phối bởi IHR đã được dành để đặt câu hỏi về các sự kiện xung quanh Holocaust. [59]

Năm 1980, IHR đã hứa thưởng 50.000 đô la cho bất cứ ai có thể chứng minh rằng người Do Thái bị nguyền rủa tại Auschwitz. Mel Mermelstein đã viết một lá thư cho các biên tập viên của LA Times và những người khác bao gồm The Jerusalem Post . IHR đã viết lại, cung cấp cho anh ta 50.000 đô la để chứng minh rằng người Do Thái, trên thực tế, đã ngậm ngùi trong các buồng khí ở Auschwitz. Đến lượt mình, Mermelstein đã đệ trình một tài khoản công chứng về việc thực tập của ông tại Auschwitz và cách ông chứng kiến ​​lính gác Đức Quốc xã dẫn đường cho mẹ và hai chị em gái của ông và những người khác về phía sau (như ông đã biết sau). Mặc dù vậy, IHR từ chối trả phần thưởng. Đại diện bởi luật sư lợi ích công cộng William John Cox, Mermelstein sau đó đã kiện IHR tại Tòa án cấp cao của Hạt Los Angeles vì ​​vi phạm hợp đồng, từ chối dự đoán, phỉ báng, từ chối gây thương tích cho sự thật đã được xác lập, cố tình gây ra sự đau khổ số C 356 542). Vào ngày 9 tháng 10 năm 1981, cả hai bên trong vụ án Mermelstein đã đệ đơn yêu cầu phán quyết tóm tắt để xem xét Thẩm phán Thomas T. Johnson của Tòa án Tối cao Hạt Los Angeles đã đưa ra "thông báo tư pháp về việc người Do Thái bị nguyền rủa đến chết tại Auschwitz Trại tập trung ở Ba Lan vào mùa hè năm 1944, "[60][61] thông báo tư pháp có nghĩa là tòa án coi các buồng khí là kiến ​​thức phổ biến, và do đó không yêu cầu bằng chứng cho thấy các buồng khí tồn tại. Vào ngày 5 tháng 8 năm 1985, Thẩm phán Robert A. Wenke đã đưa ra một bản án dựa trên Quy định về Phán quyết của các bên được các bên thỏa thuận vào ngày 22 tháng 7 năm 1985. Bản án yêu cầu IHR và các bị cáo khác phải trả 90.000 đô la cho Mermelstein và đưa ra một lá thư về lời xin lỗi đến "Ông Mel Mermelstein, một người sống sót của Auschwitz-Birkenau và Buchenwald, và tất cả những người sống sót khác của Auschwitz" vì "đau đớn, thống khổ và đau khổ" gây ra cho họ. [61] tuyên bố "Giới thiệu về IHR" trên trang web của họ, IHR tuyên bố, "IHR không 'từ chối' Holocaust. Thật vậy, IHR như vậy không có 'vị trí' đối với bất kỳ sự kiện cụ thể nào …." [62] và các nhà sử học đã lưu ý đến bản chất sai lệch của các tuyên bố của IHR rằng chúng không phải là những kẻ chối bỏ Holocaust. Paul Rauber viết rằng:

Câu hỏi [of whether the IHR denies the Holocaust] dường như bật trò chơi chữ Humpty-Dumpty của IHR với từ Holocaust. Theo Mark Weber, phó tổng biên tập Tạp chí Lịch sử của IHR [now Director of the IHR]"Nếu bởi 'Holocaust', bạn có nghĩa là cuộc đàn áp chính trị của người Do Thái, một số vụ giết người rải rác, nếu bạn muốn nói là một điều tàn nhẫn đã xảy ra, không ai phủ nhận rằng Nhưng nếu người ta nói rằng 'Holocaust' có nghĩa là sự tiêu diệt có hệ thống của sáu đến tám triệu người Do Thái trong các trại tập trung, thì đó là những gì chúng ta nghĩ rằng không có bằng chứng nào. " Đó là, IHR không phủ nhận rằng Holocaust đã xảy ra; họ chỉ phủ nhận rằng từ 'Holocaust' có nghĩa là những gì mọi người thường sử dụng nó cho. [63]

Theo nhà sử học người Anh Richard J. Evans:

Giống như nhiều người từ chối Holocaust cá nhân, Viện như một cơ quan phủ nhận rằng nó có liên quan đến sự từ chối Holocaust. Nó gọi đây là 'sự bôi nhọ', 'hoàn toàn trái ngược với sự thật' bởi vì 'các học giả xét lại' như Faurisson, Butz 'và nhà sử học người Anh bán chạy nhất David Irving thừa nhận rằng hàng trăm ngàn người Do Thái đã bị giết và bị diệt vong trong Thế giới thứ hai Chiến tranh là kết quả trực tiếp và gián tiếp của các chính sách chống Do Thái khắc nghiệt của Đức và các đồng minh '. Nhưng sự nhượng bộ rằng một số lượng nhỏ người Do Thái bị giết đã được sử dụng thường xuyên bởi những người từ chối Holocaust để đánh lạc hướng sự chú ý từ thực tế quan trọng hơn nhiều về việc họ từ chối thừa nhận rằng con số đã chạy vào hàng triệu người, và một tỷ lệ lớn các nạn nhân này là có hệ thống Bị giết bằng cách ngấu nghiến cũng như bắn súng. [64]

Bradley Smith và Ủy ban tranh luận mở về Holocaust [ chỉnh sửa ]

Năm 1987, Bradley R. Smith, cựu giám đốc truyền thông của Viện nghiên cứu lịch sử, [65] đã thành lập Ủy ban tranh luận mở về Holocaust (CODOH). [66] Tại Hoa Kỳ, CODOH đã nhiều lần cố gắng đặt quảng cáo đặt câu hỏi liệu Holocaust có xảy ra hay không, đặc biệt là trên các tờ báo của trường đại học, [67] không phải lúc nào cũng bị từ chối vì một số lượng lớn các trường đại học chấp nhận quảng cáo vì họ cảm thấy không làm như vậy sẽ cắt giảm Sửa đổi đầu tiên. [68]

Bradley Smith đã tìm kiếm những con đường khác để thúc đẩy sự từ chối Holocaust – với rất ít thành công. Vào ngày 8 tháng 9 năm 2009, tờ báo sinh viên The Harvard Crimson đã chạy một quảng cáo trả tiền từ Bradley R Smith. Nó đã nhanh chóng bị chỉ trích và một lời xin lỗi đã được đưa ra từ biên tập viên, cho rằng đó là một sai lầm. [69] Báo chí từ chối quảng cáo của Smith từ thời điểm đó cho đến khi ông qua đời vào năm 2016, nói chung kết luận rằng việc từ chối chấp nhận quảng cáo trả tiền của ông không bao gồm vi phạm quyền sửa đổi đầu tiên của Smith.

Smith gọi chiến thuật của mình là dự án khuôn viên CODOH. Anh ấy nói, "Tôi không muốn dành thời gian với người lớn nữa, tôi muốn đi học sinh. Họ thật hời hợt. Họ là những con tàu trống rỗng cần được lấp đầy." "Điều tôi muốn làm là tôi muốn đưa ra ba hoặc bốn ý tưởng mà sinh viên có thể quan tâm, điều đó có thể khiến họ suy nghĩ về mọi thứ hoặc có câu hỏi về mọi thứ. Và tôi muốn làm cho nó đơn giản nhất có thể, và để thiết lập nó theo cách không thể tranh luận. "[70] Những người từ chối Holocaust đã đặt" Quảng cáo toàn trang trên các tờ báo đại học và đại học, bao gồm cả những trường Đại học Brandeis, Đại học Boston, Đại học Bang Pennsylvania và Đại học Queens (một phần của CUNY). Một số trong những quảng cáo này lập luận rằng Holocaust không bao giờ xảy ra mà không có bình luận, những người khác đã tạo ra các tác phẩm op-ed bởi các giáo sư và sinh viên ". [71]

James Keegstra [ chỉnh sửa ] Năm 1984, James Keegstra, một giáo viên trung học người Canada, bị buộc tội theo Bộ luật hình sự của Canada vì "thúc đẩy sự thù hận chống lại một nhóm có thể nhận dạng bằng cách truyền đạt các tuyên bố chống Do Thái cho học sinh của mình". Trong lớp học, anh ta sẽ mô tả người Do Thái là một dân tộc xấu xa sâu sắc, người đã "tạo ra Holocaust để có được sự cảm thông." Ông cũng đã kiểm tra các sinh viên của mình trong các kỳ thi về lý thuyết và quan điểm của người Do Thái.

Keegstra bị buộc tội theo điều 281.2 (2) của Bộ luật hình sự (nay là 319 (2), trong đó quy định rằng "Mọi người, bằng cách truyền đạt các tuyên bố, ngoại trừ trong cuộc trò chuyện riêng tư, sẽ khuyến khích hatred against any identifiable group" commits a criminal offense.[72] He was convicted at trial before the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench. The court rejected the argument, advanced by Keegstra and his lawyer, Doug Christie, that promoting hatred is a constitutionally protected freedom of expression as per s 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Keegstra appealed to the Alberta Court of Appeal. That court agreed with Keegstra, and he was acquitted. The Crown then appealed the case to the Supreme Court of Canada, which ruled by a 4–3 majority that promoting hatred could be justifiably restricted under s 1 of the Charter. The Supreme Court restored Keegstra's conviction.[73] He was fired from his teaching position shortly afterward.[19659133]Zündel trials[edit]

The Toronto-based photo retoucher Ernst Zündel operated a small-press called Samisdat Publishers, which published and distributed Holocaust-denial material such as Did Six Million Really Die? by Richard Harwood (a pseudonym of Richard Verrall – a British neo-Nazi). In 1985, he was tried in R. v. Zundel and convicted under a "false news" law and sentenced to 15 months imprisonment by an Ontario court for "disseminating and publishing material denying the Holocaust".[75] The Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg was a witness for the prosecution at the 1985 trial. Zündel's conviction was overturned in an appeal on a legal technicality, leading to a second trial in 1988, in which he was again convicted. The 1988 trial included, as witnesses for the defense, Fred A. Leuchter, David Irving and Robert Faurisson. The pseudo-scientific Leuchter report was presented as a defense document and was published in Canada in 1988 by Zundel's Samisdat Publishers, and in Britain in 1989 by Irving's Focal Point Publishing. In both of his trials, Zündel was defended by Douglas Christie and Barbara Kulaszka. His conviction was overturned in 1992 when the Supreme Court of Canada declared the "false news" law unconstitutional.[75]

Zündel has a website, web-mastered by his wife Ingrid, which publicises his viewpoints.[76] In January 2002, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal delivered a ruling in a complaint involving his website, in which it was found to be contravening the Canadian Human Rights Act. The court ordered Zündel to cease communicating hate messages. In February 2003, the American INS arrested him in Tennessee, USA, on an immigration violations matter, and few days later, Zündel was sent back to Canada, where he tried to gain refugee status. Zündel remained in prison until March 1, 2005, when he was deported to Germany and prosecuted for disseminating hate propaganda. On February 15, 2007, Zündel was convicted on 14 counts of incitement under Germany's Volksverhetzung law, which bans the incitement of hatred against a portion of the population, and given the maximum sentence of five years in prison.[77]

Ernst Nolte[edit]

The German philosopher and historian Ernst Nolte, starting in the 1980s, advanced a set of theories, which though not denying the Holocaust appeared to flirt with an Italian Holocaust denier, Carlo Mattogno, as a serious historian.[78] In a letter to the Israeli historian Otto Dov Kulka of December 8, 1986, Nolte criticized the work of the French Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson on the ground that the Holocaust did occur, but went on to argue that Faurisson's work was motivated by what Nolte claimed were the admirable motives of sympathy towards the Palestinians and opposition to Israel.[79] In his 1987 book Der europäische Bürgerkrieg (The European Civil War), Nolte claimed that the intentions of Holocaust deniers are "often honourable", and that some of their claims are "not obviously without foundation".[78][80] Nolte himself, though he has never denied the occurrence of the Holocaust, has claimed that the Wannsee Conference of 1942 never happened, and that the minutes of the conference were post-war forgeries done by "biased" Jewish historians designed to discredit Germany.[80]

The British historian Ian Kershaw has argued that Nolte was operating on the borderlines of Holocaust denial with his implied claim that the "negative myth" of the Third Reich was created by Jewish historians, his allegations of the domination of Holocaust scholarship by "biased" Jewish historians, and his statements that one should withhold judgment on Holocaust deniers, whom Nolte takes considerable pains to stress are not exclusively Germans or fascists.[81] In Kershaw's opinion, Nolte is attempting to imply that perhaps Holocaust deniers are on to something.[81]

In a 1990 interview, Nolte implied that there was something to the Leuchter report: "If the revisionists [Holocaust deniers] and Leuchter among them have made it clear to the public that even 'Auschwitz' must be an object of scientific inquiry and controversy then they should be given credit for this. Even if it finally turned out that the number of victims was even greater and the procedures were even more horrific than has been assumed until now."[82] In his 1993 book Streitpunkte (Points of Contention), Nolte praised the work of Holocaust deniers as superior to "mainstream scholars".[83] Nolte wrote that "radical revisionists have presented research which, if one is familiar with the source material and the critique of the sources, is probably superior to that of the established historians of Germany".[83][84] In a 1994 interview with Der Spiegel magazine, Nolte stated "I cannot rule out the importance of the investigation of the gas chambers in which they looked for remnants of the [chemical process engendered by Zyklon B]", and that "'Of course, I am against revisionists, but Fred Leuchter's 'study' of the Nazi gas ovens has to be given attention, because one has to stay open to 'other' ideas."[85]

The British historian Richard J. Evans in his 1989 book In Hitler's Shadow expressed the view that Nolte's reputation as a scholar was in ruins as a result of these and other controversial statements on his part.[86] The American historian Deborah Lipstadt in a 2003 interview stated:

Historians such as the German Ernst Nolte are, in some ways, even more dangerous than the deniers. Nolte is an anti-Semite of the first order, who attempts to rehabilitate Hitler by saying that he was no worse than Stalin; but he is careful not to deny the Holocaust. Holocaust-deniers make Nolte's life more comfortable. They have, with their radical argumentation, pulled the center a little more to their side. Consequently, a less radical extremist, such as Nolte, finds himself closer to the middle ground, which makes him more dangerous.[87]

Mayer controversy[edit]

In 1988, the American historian Arno J. Mayer published a book entitled Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?which did not explicitly deny the Holocaust, but according to Lucy Dawidowicz lent support to Holocaust denial by stating that most people who died at Auschwitz were the victims of "natural causes" such as disease, not gassing.[88] Dawidowicz argued that Mayer's statements about Auschwitz were "a breathtaking assertion".[89] Holocaust historian Robert Jan van Pelt has written that Mayer's book is as close as a mainstream historian has ever come to supporting Holocaust denial.[90] Holocaust deniers such as David Irving have often cited Mayer's book as one reason for embracing Holocaust denial.[90] Though Mayer has been often condemned for his statement about the reasons for the Auschwitz death toll, his book does not deny the use of gas chambers at Auschwitz, as Holocaust deniers often claim.[91]

Some mainstream Holocaust historians have labeled Mayer a denier. The Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer wrote that Mayer "popularizes the nonsense that the Nazis saw in Marxism and Bolshevism their main enemy, and the Jews unfortunately got caught up in this; when he links the destruction of the Jews to the ups and downs of German warfare in the Soviet Union, in a book that is so cocksure of itself that it does not need a proper scientific apparatus, he is really engaging in a much more subtle form of Holocaust denial".[92]

Defenders of Mayer argue that his statement that "Sources for the study of the gas chambers are at once rare and unreliable" has been taken out of context, particularly by Holocaust deniers.[93]Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman observe that the paragraph from which the statement is taken asserts that the SS destroyed the majority of the documentation relating to the operation of the gas chambers in the death camps, which is why Mayer feels that sources for the operation of the gas chambers are "rare" and "unreliable".[94]

Ken McVay and alt.revisionism[edit]

Ken McVay, an American resident in Canada, was disturbed by the efforts of organizations like the Simon Wiesenthal Center to suppress the speech of the Holocaust deniers, feeling that it was better to confront them openly than to try to censor them. On the Usenet newsgroup alt.revisionism he began a campaign of "truth, fact, and evidence", working with other participants on the newsgroup to uncover factual information about the Holocaust and counter the arguments of the deniers by proving them to be based upon misleading evidence, false statements, and outright lies. He founded the Nizkor Project to expose the activities of the Holocaust deniers, who responded to McVay with personal attacks, slander, and death threats.[95]

David Irving and the Lipstadt libel case[edit]

Deborah Lipstadt's 1993 book Denying the Holocaust sharply criticized various Holocaust deniers, including British author David Irving, for deliberately misrepresenting evidence to justify their preconceived conclusions. In 1996 Irving filed a libel suit against Lipstadt and her publisher, Penguin Books. American historian Christopher Browning, an expert witness for the defense, wrote a comprehensive essay for the court summarizing the voluminous evidence for the reality of the Holocaust, and under cross-examination, effectively countered all of Irving's principal arguments to the contrary.[96] Cambridge historian Richard J. Evans, another defense expert witness, spent two years examining Irving's writings, and confirmed his misrepresentations, including evidence that he had knowingly used forged documents as source material. The judge, Justice Charles Gray, ultimately delivered a long and decisive verdict in favor of Lipstadt that referred to Irving as a "Holocaust denier" and "right-wing pro-Nazi polemicist."[97]

Focus on Allied war crimes in Holocaust denial literature[edit]

The focus on supposed Allied atrocities during the war has been a theme in Holocaust denial literature, particularly in countries where outright denial of the Holocaust is illegal.[98] According to historian Deborah Lipstadt, the concept of "comparable Allied wrongs", such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II and the bombing of Dresden,[99] is at the center of, and a continuously repeated theme of, contemporary Holocaust denial; a phenomenon she calls "immoral equivalencies".[100] Pierre Vidal-Naquet pointed out the same phenomenon in the earlier version of Les Assassins de la mémoire under the title Auschwitz et le tiers monde (Les Assassins de la mémoireParis, 2005, pp. 170–180), and accurately about the declarations of Klaus Barbie's lawyer Jacques Vergès. In 1977, Martin Broszat, in a review of David Irving's book Hitler's Warmaintained that the picture of World War II drawn by Irving was done in a such way to imply moral equivalence between the actions of the Axis and Allied states with both sides equally guilty of terrible crimes, leading to Hitler's "fanatical, destructive will to annihilate" being downgraded to being "no longer an exceptional phenomenon".[101]

Propaganda[edit]

According to James Najarian, Holocaust deniers working for the Institute for Historical Review are not trained in history and "put out sham scholarly articles in the mock-academic publication, the Journal of Historical Review".[102] They appeal to "our objectivity, our sense of fair play, and our distrust of figurative language".[103] Thus, they rely on facts to grab the readers' attention. These facts, however, are strung by what Najarian calls "fabricated decorum" and are re-interpreted for their use. For example, they pay particular attention to inconsistencies in numbers.[104][clarification needed]

Holocaust denial propaganda in all forms has been shown to influence the audiences that it reaches. In fact, even the well-educated—that is, college graduates and current university students alike—are susceptible to such propaganda when it is presented before them. This stems from the growing disbelief that audiences feel after being exposed to such information, especially since Holocaust witnesses themselves are decreasing in number.[105] Studies centered on the psychological effects of Holocaust denial propaganda confirm this assertion. Linda M. Yelland and William F. Stone, in particular, show that Denial essays decrease readers' belief in the Holocaust, regardless of their prior Holocaust awareness.[106]

Recent developments[edit]

Japan[edit]

In February 1995 the Japanese magazine Marco Poloa 250,000-circulation monthly published by Bungei Shunju, ran a Holocaust denial article by physician Masanori Nishioka which stated:

The 'Holocaust' is a fabrication. There were no execution gas chambers in Auschwitz or in any other concentration camp. Today, what are displayed as 'gas chambers' at the remains of the Auschwitz camp in Poland are a post-war fabrication by the Polish communist regime or by the Soviet Union, which controlled the country. Not once, neither at Auschwitz nor in any territory controlled by the Germans during the Second World War, was there 'mass murder of Jews' in 'gas chambers.'[107]

The Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center instigated a boycott of Bungei Shunju advertisers, including Volkswagen, Mitsubishi, and Cartier. Within days, Bungei Shunju shut down Marco Polo and its editor, Kazuyoshi Hanada, quit, as did the president of Bungei Shunju, Kengo Tanaka.[108]

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey, in 1996, the Islamic preacher Harun Yahya distributed thousands of copies of a book which was originally published the previous year, entitled Soykırım Yalanı ("The Holocaust Lie") and mailed unsolicited texts to American and European schools and colleges.[109] The publication of Soykırım Yalanı sparked much public debate.[110] This book claims, "what is presented as Holocaust is the death of some Jews due to the typhus plague during the war and the famine towards the end of the war caused by the defeat of the Germans."[111] In March 1996, a Turkish painter and intellectual, Bedri Baykam, published a strongly worded critique of the book in the Ankara daily newspaper Siyah-Beyaz ("Black and White"). A legal suit for slander was brought against him. During the trial in September, Baykam exposed the real author of the book as Adnan Oktar.[110] The suit was withdrawn in March 1997.[112][113]

France[edit]

In France, Holocaust denial became more prominent in the 1990s as négationnismethough the movement has existed in ultra-left French politics since at least the 1960s, led by figures such as Pierre Guillaume (who was involved in the bookshop La Vieille Taupe during the 1960s). Recently, elements of the extreme far right in France have begun to build on each other's negationist arguments, which often span beyond the Holocaust to cover a range of antisemitic views, incorporating attempts to tie the Holocaust to the Biblical massacre of the Canaanites, critiques of Zionism, and other material fanning what has been called a "conspiratorial Judeo-phobia" designed to legitimize and "banalize" antisemitism.[114]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium in 2001, Roeland Raes, the ideologue and vice-president of one of the country's largest political parties, the Vlaams Belang (formerly named Vlaams Blok, Flemish Bloc), gave an interview on Dutch TV where he cast doubt over the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In the same interview he questioned the scale of the Nazis' use of gas chambers and the authenticity of Anne Frank's diary. In response to the media assault following the interview, Raes was forced to resign his position but vowed to remain active within the party.[115] Three years later, the Vlaams Blok was convicted of racism and chose to disband. Immediately afterwards, it legally reformed under the new name Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) with the same leaders and the same membership.[116]

Germany[edit]

The trial of a Canadian woman, Monika Schaefer and her German-Canadian brother, Alfred Schaefer started in Germany in early July 2018. They were charged with Volksverhetzung"incitement to hatred". The pair had published video clips on YouTube of their denial of the genocide of Jews. In the clips, Alfred Schaefer said that Jews wanted to destroy Germans, blamed them for starting both World Wars, and referred to the Holocaust as a "Jewish fantasy".[117]

Monika Schaefer was arrested in January 2018 in Germany while attending a court hearing of Sylvia Stolz.[118][119][120] Schaefer had been the Green Party candidate in the Alberta riding of Yellowhead during the federal elections in 2006, 2008, and 2011, but was expelled from the party after news reports surfaced of a July 2016 video[121] where she describes the Holocaust as "the most persistent lie in all of history" and insisted that those in concentration camps had been kept as healthy and as well-fed as possible.[122][123]

In late October 2018, Monika Schaefer was convicted of the charge of "incitement of the people" (often reworded as incitement of hatred by the news media). She was sentenced to ten months while Alfred Schaefer, also convicted, received a sentence of three years and two month.[124]

Middle East[edit]

Denials of the Holocaust have been promoted by various Middle Eastern figures and media. Holocaust denial is sponsored by some Middle Eastern governments, including Iran[125] and Syria.[126] Prominent figures from the Middle East have rarely made publicized visits to Auschwitz—Israel's Arab community being the exception. In 2010, Hadash MK Mohammed Barakeh visited, following a previous visit of two other Arab-Israeli lawmakers, and a group of about 100 Arab-Israeli writers and clerics in 2003.[127] Individuals from the Syrian government, the Palestinian Authority, and a number of Palestinian groups have all engaged in various aspects of Holocaust denial.[126][128] In 2006 Robert Satloff writing in The Washington Postreported that "A respected Holocaust research institution recently reported that Egypt, Qatar and Saudi Arabia all promote Holocaust denial and protect Holocaust deniers."[129]

Hamas leaders have promoted Holocaust denial; Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi held that the Holocaust never occurred, that Zionists were behind the action of Nazis, and that Zionists funded Nazism.[130][need quotation to verify] A press release by Hamas in April 2000 decried "the so-called Holocaust, which is an alleged and invented story with no basis".[131] In August 2009, Hamas' told UNRWA that it would "refuse" to allow Palestinian children to study the Holocaust, which it called "a lie invented by the Zionists" and referred to Holocaust education as a "war crime".[132] Hamas continued to hold this position in 2011, when the organization's Ministry for Refugee Affairs said that Holocaust education was "intended to poison the minds of our children."[133]

Gamal Abdel Nasser, the President of Egypt, told a German newspaper in 1964 that "no person, not even the most simple one, takes seriously the lie of the six million Jews that were murdered [in the Holocaust]."[134][135]

The thesis of the 1982 doctoral dissertation of Mahmoud Abbas, a co-founder of Fatah and president of the Palestinian National Authority, was "The Secret Connection between the Nazis and the Leaders of the Zionist Movement".[136][137][138] In his 1983 book The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism based on the dissertation, Abbas denied that six million Jews had died in the Holocaust; dismissing it as a "myth" and a "fantastic lie".[139] At most, he wrote, 890,000 Jews were killed by the Germans. Abbas claimed that the number of deaths has been exaggerated for political purposes. "It seems that the interest of the Zionist movement, however, is to inflate this figure [of Holocaust deaths] so that their gains will be greater. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions—fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand."[138][140][141][142][143] In his March 2006 interview with HaaretzAbbas stated, "I wrote in detail about the Holocaust and said I did not want to discuss numbers. I quoted an argument between historians in which various numbers of casualties were mentioned. One wrote there were 12 million victims and another wrote there were 800,000. I have no desire to argue with the figures. The Holocaust was a terrible, unforgivable crime against the Jewish nation, a crime against humanity that cannot be accepted by humankind. The Holocaust was a terrible thing and nobody can claim I denied it."[144] While acknowledging the existence of the Holocaust in 2006 and 2014,[145] Abbas has defended the position that Zionists collaborated with the Nazis to perpetrate it. In 2012, Abbas told Al Mayadeen, a Beirut TV station affiliated with Iran and Hezbollah, that he "challenges anyone who can deny that the Zionist movement had ties with the Nazis before World War II".[146]

Surveys conducted by Sammy Smooha of the University of Haifa found that the fraction of Israeli Arabs denying that millions of Jews were murdered by the Nazis increased from 28% in 2006 to 40% in 2008.[147] Smooha commented:

In Arab eyes disbelief in the very happening of the Shoah is not hate of Jews (embedded in the denial of the Shoah in the West) but rather a form of protest. Arabs not believing in the event of Shoah intend to express strong objection to the portrayal of the Jews as the ultimate victim and to the underrating of the Palestinians as a victim. They deny Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state that the Shoah gives legitimacy to. Arab disbelief in the Shoah is a component of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, unlike the ideological and anti-Semitic denial of the Holocaust and the desire to escape guilt in the West.[147]

Iran[edit]

Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad frequently denied the Holocaust,[148] formally 'questioning' the reliability of the historical evidence,[149] although he on occasion confirmed belief in it.[150][151] In a December 2005 speech, Ahmadinejad said that a legend was fabricated and had been promoted to protect Israel. Anh nói:

They have fabricated a legend, under the name of the Massacre of the Jews, and they hold it higher than God himself, religion itself and the prophets themselves…. If somebody in their country questions God, nobody says anything, but if somebody denies the myth of the massacre of Jews, the Zionist loudspeakers and the governments in the pay of Zionism will start to scream.[152]

The remarks immediately provoked international controversy as well as swift condemnation from government officials in Israel, Europe, and the United States. All six political parties in the German parliament signed a joint resolution condemning this Holocaust denial.[153] In contrast, Hamas political leader Khaled Mashaal described Ahmadinejad's comments as "courageous" and stated, "Muslim people will defend Iran because it voices what they have in their hearts, in particular the Palestinian people."[154] In the United States, the Muslim Public Affairs Council condemned Ahmadinejad's remarks.[155] In 2005 the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader, Mohammed Mahdi Akef, denounced what he called "the myth of the Holocaust" in defending Ahmadinejad's denial of the Holocaust.[156]

On December 11, 2006, the Iranian state-sponsored "International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust" opened to widespread condemnation.[157] The conference, called for by and held at the behest of Ahmadinejad,[158] was widely described as a "Holocaust denial conference" or a "meeting of Holocaust deniers",[159] though Iran denied it was a Holocaust denial conference.[160] A few months before it opened, the Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi stated: "The Holocaust is not a sacred issue that one can't touch. I have visited the Nazi camps in Eastern Europe. I think it is exaggerated."[161]

In 2013, in an interview with CNN, newly elected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani was quoted as condemning the Holocaust, stating, "I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis created towards the Jews as well as non-Jews is reprehensible and condemnable. Whatever criminality they committed against the Jews, we condemn."[162] Iranian media later accused CNN of fabricating Rouhani's comments.[163]

In his official 2013 Nowruz address, Supreme Leader of Iran Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei questioned the veracity of the Holocaust, remarking that "The Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, it's uncertain how it has happened."[164][165] This was consistent with Khamenei's previous comments regarding the Holocaust.[166]

In 2015, the House of Cartoon and the Sarcheshmeh Cultural Complex in Iran organized the International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, a competition in which artists were encouraged to submit cartoons on the theme of Holocaust denial. The winner of the contest will receive $12,000. Hamshahria popular Iranian newspaper, held a similar contest in 2006.[167]

Reactions to Holocaust denial[edit]

Types of reaction[edit]

Scholarly response to Holocaust denial can be roughly divided into three categories. Some academics refuse to engage Holocaust deniers or their arguments at all, on grounds that doing so lends them unwarranted legitimacy.[168] A second group of scholars, typified by the American historian Deborah Lipstadt, have tried to raise awareness of the methods and motivations of Holocaust denial without legitimizing the deniers themselves. "We need not waste time or effort answering the deniers' contentions," Lipstadt wrote. "It would be never-ending…. Their commitment is to an ideology and their 'findings' are shaped to support it."[169] A third group, typified by the Nizkor Project, responds to arguments and claims made by Holocaust denial groups by pointing out inaccuracies and errors in their evidence.[170][171][172]

Even scholarly responses, however, can trigger vigorous rebuttals. In 1996, the British Holocaust denier David Irving brought a civil defamation suit against Lipstadt and her publisher, stemming from Lipstadt's book Denying the Holocaustin which she named Irving as "one of the more dangerous" Holocaust deniers, because he was a published author, and was viewed by some as a legitimate military historian. He was "familiar with historical evidence", she wrote, and "bends it until it conforms with his ideological leanings and political agenda". Irving, who appeared as a defense witness in Ernst Zündel's trial in Canada, and once declared at a rally of Holocaust deniers that "more women died in the back seat of Edward Kennedy's car than ever died in a gas chamber at Auschwitz,"[173] claimed that Lipstadt's allegation damaged his reputation. After a two-month trial in London, the trial judge issued a 333-page ruling against Irving.[174]

In December 1991 the American Historical Association issued the following statement: The American Historical Association Council strongly deplores the publicly reported attempts to deny the fact of the Holocaust. No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place. This followed a strong reaction by many of its members and commentary in the press against a near-unanimous decision that the AHA had made in May 1991 that studying the significance of the Holocaust should be encouraged. The association's May 1991 statement was in response to an incident where certain of its members had questioned the reality of the Holocaust. The December 1991 declaration is a reversal of the AHA's earlier stance that the association should not set a precedent by certifying historical facts.[175]

Public figures and scholars[edit]

A number of public figures and scholars have spoken out against Holocaust denial, with some – such as literary theorist Jean Baudrillard – likening Holocaust denial to "part of the extermination itself".[176] The American Historical Association, the oldest and largest society of historians and teachers of history in the United States, states that Holocaust denial is "at best, a form of academic fraud".[177] In 2006, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said: "Remembering is a necessary rebuke to those who say the Holocaust never happened or has been exaggerated. Holocaust denial is the work of bigots; we must reject their false claims whenever, wherever and by whomever they are made."[178] Holocaust survivor and Nobel Prize winner Elie Wiesel, during a 1999 discussion at the White House in Washington D.C., called the Holocaust "the most documented tragedy in recorded history. Never before has a tragedy elicited so much witness from the killers, from the victims and even from the bystanders—millions of pieces here in the museum what you have, all other museums, archives in the thousands, in the millions."[179]

In January 2007, the United Nations General Assembly condemned "without reservation any denial of the Holocaust", though Iran disassociated itself from the resolution.[180] In July 2013, Iran's then president-elect Hassan Rohani described Ahmadinejad's remarks about the Holocaust and Israel as "hate rhetoric"[181] and in September 2013 Rohani stated that "The Nazis carried out a massacre that cannot be denied, especially against the Jewish people" and "The massacre by the Nazis was condemnable. We never want to sit by side with the Nazis..They committed a crime against Jews — which is a crime against..all of humanity."[182] While declining to give a specific number of Jewish victims, Iranian analysts suggested that "Rouhani pushed the envelope as far as it could go..without infuriating the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and other conservatives back home."[162]

Former SS members[edit]

Critics of Holocaust denial also include members of the Auschwitz SS. Camp physician and SS-Untersturmführer Hans Münch considered the facts of Auschwitz "so firmly determined that one cannot have any doubt at all", and described those who negate what happened at the camp as "malevolent" people who have "personal interest to want to bury in silence things that cannot be buried in silence".[183]Zyklon B handler and SS-Oberscharführer Josef Klehr said that anyone who maintains that nobody was gassed at Auschwitz must be "crazy or in the wrong".[184] SS-Unterscharführer Oswald Kaduk stated that he did not consider those who maintain such a thing as normal people.[185] Hearing about Holocaust denial compelled former SS-Rottenführer Oskar Gröning to publicly speak about what he witnessed at Auschwitz, and denounce Holocaust deniers,[186] stating:

I would like you to believe me. I saw the gas chambers. I saw the crematoria. I saw the open fires. I was on the ramp when the selections took place. I would like you to believe that these atrocities happened because I was there.[187][188]

Holocaust denial and antisemitism[edit]

The Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity defines Holocaust denial as "a new form of anti-Semitism, but one that hinges on age-old motifs".[189] The Anti-Defamation League has stated that "Holocaust denial is a contemporary form of the classic anti-Semitic doctrine of the evil, manipulative and threatening world Jewish conspiracy"[190] and French historian Valérie Igounet has written that "Holocaust denial is a convenient polemical substitute for anti-semitism."[191]

According to Walter Reich, psychiatrist and then senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, one-time director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and now professor of international affairs at George Washington University:

The primary motivation for most deniers is anti-Semitism, and for them the Holocaust is an infuriatingly inconvenient fact of history. After all, the Holocaust has generally been recognized as one of the most terrible crimes that ever took place, and surely the very emblem of evil in the modern age. If that crime was a direct result of anti-Semitism taken to its logical end, then anti-Semitism itself, even when expressed in private conversation, is inevitably discredited among most people. What better way to rehabilitate anti-Semitism, make anti-Semitic arguments seem once again respectable in civilized discourse and even make it acceptable for governments to pursue anti-Semitic policies than by convincing the world that the great crime for which anti-Semitism was blamed simply never happened—indeed, that it was nothing more than a frame-up invented by the Jews, and propagated by them through their control of the media? What better way, in short, to make the world safe again for anti-Semitism than by denying the Holocaust?[192]

The French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet described the motivation of deniers more succinctly:

One revives the dead in order the better to strike the living.[193]

Definition of antisemitism[edit]

In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) published a working definition of antisemitism which gave as an example of the way that antisemitism might manifest itself.[194]

Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g., gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust).[195]

A definition based on the EUMC definition was later adopted by the U.S. Department of State.[196]

Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.[197]

In November 2013 the Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) the successor agency to the EUMC removed the definition from the organisation's website in 'a clear-out of non-official documents'. A spokesperson stated that the document had never been viewed as a valid definition and that "We are not aware of any official definition".[198][199] On 26 May 2016 the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance adopted a working definition of antisemitism and called on the EU to adopt this definition. The United Kingdom was the first country to adopted the definition followed by Israel, Austria, Scotland, Romania, Germany and Bulgaria. The European Parliament voted in favor of a resolution calling for member states to adopt the definition on 1 June 2017.[200][201][202] The definition includes as one example of contemporary antisemitism the following.

Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust).[203]

Examination of claims[edit]

The key claims which cause Holocaust denial to differ from established fact are:[3][4]

  • The Nazis had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews.
  • Nazis did not use gas chambers to mass murder Jews.[204]
  • The figure of 5 to 6 million Jewish deaths is a gross exaggeration, and the actual number is an order of magnitude lower.

Other claims include the following:

  • Stories of the Holocaust were a myth initially created by the Allies of World War II to demonize Germans,[4] Jews having spread this myth as part of a grander plot intended to enable the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and now to garner continuing support for the state of Israel.[205]
  • Documentary evidence of the Holocaust, from photographs to The Diary of Anne Frankis fabricated.[4]
  • Survivor testimonies are filled with errors and inconsistencies, and are thus unreliable.[4]
  • Interrogators obtained Nazi prisoners' confessions of war crimes through the use of torture.[4]
  • The Nazi treatment of Jews was no different from what the Allies did to their enemies in World War II.[206]

Holocaust denial is widely viewed as failing to adhere to principles for the treatment of evidence that mainstream historians (as well as scholars in other fields) regard as basic to rational inquiry.[207]

The Holocaust was well documented by the bureaucracy of the Nazi government itself.[208][209] It was further witnessed by the Allied forces who entered Germany and its associated Axis states towards the end of World War II.[210][211][212] It was also witnessed from the inside by non-Jewish captives such as Catholic French Resistance member André Rogerie who wrote extensively and testified about his experiences in seven camps including Auschwitz-Birkenau[213] and also produced the oldest contemporary sketch of a camp crematorium.[214]

According to researchers Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman, there is a "convergence of evidence" that proves that the Holocaust happened. This evidence includes:[215]

  1. Written documents—hundreds of thousands of letters, memos, blueprints, orders, bills, speeches, articles, memoirs, and confessions.
  2. Eyewitness testimony—accounts from survivors, Jewish Sonderkommandos (who helped load bodies from the gas chambers into the crematoria in exchange for a chance of survival), SS guards, commandants, local townspeople, and even high-ranking Nazis who spoke openly about the mass murder of the Jews.
  3. Photographs—including official military and press photographs, civilian photographs, secret photographs taken by survivors, aerial photographs, German and Allied film footage, and unofficial photographs taken by the German military.
  4. The camps themselves—concentration camps, work camps, and extermination camps that still exist in varying degrees of originality and reconstruction.
  5. Inferential evidence or argument from silence — population demographics, reconstructed from the pre–World War II era; if six million Jews were not killed, what happened to them?

Much of the controversy surrounding the claims of Holocaust deniers centers on the methods used to present arguments that the Holocaust allegedly never happened as commonly accepted. Numerous accounts have been given by Holocaust deniers (including evidence presented in court cases) of claimed facts and evidence; however, independent research has shown these claims to be based upon flawed research, biased statements, or even deliberately falsified evidence. Opponents of Holocaust denial have documented numerous instances in which such evidence was altered or manufactured (see Nizkor Project and David Irving). According to Pierre Vidal-Naquet, "in our society of image and spectacle, extermination on paper leads to extermination in reality."[216]

Laws against Holocaust denial[edit]

Holocaust denial is explicitly or implicitly illegal in 17 countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and Switzerland.[217][218] Romania officially denied the Holocaust occurred on its territory up until the Wiesel Commission in 2004.[219][220] The European Union's Framework decision on Racism and Xenophobia states that denying or grossly trivializing "crimes of genocide" should be made "punishable in all EU Member States".[221] Slovakia criminalized denial of fascist crimes in general in late 2001; in May 2005, the term "Holocaust" was explicitly adopted by the penal code and in 2009, it became illegal to deny any act regarded by an international criminal court as genocide. In 2010 the Parliament of Hungary adopted legislation punishing the denial of the genocides committed by National Socialist or Communist systems, without mentioning the word "Holocaust".[222]

Such legislation remains controversial. In October 2007, a tribunal declared Spain's Holocaust denial law unconstitutional.[223] In 2007 Italy rejected a denial law proposing a prison sentence of up to four years. In 2006 the Netherlands rejected a draft law proposing a maximum sentence of one year on denial of genocidal acts in general, although specifically denying the Holocaust remains a criminal offense there. The United Kingdom has twice rejected Holocaust denial laws. Denmark and Sweden have also rejected such legislation.[224]

A number of deniers have been prosecuted under various countries' denial laws. French literature professor Robert Faurisson, for example, was convicted and punished under the Gayssot Act in 1990. Some historians oppose such laws, among them Pierre Vidal-Naquet, an outspoken critic of Faurisson, on the grounds that denial legislation imposes "historical truth as legal truth".[225] Other academics favor criminalization. Holocaust denial, they contend, is "the worst form of racism and its most respectable version because it pretends to be a research".[226]

David Irving conviction[edit]

In February 2006 Irving was convicted in Austria, where Holocaust denial is illegal, for a speech he had made in 1989 in which he denied the existence of gas chambers at Auschwitz.[227] Irving was aware of the outstanding arrest warrant, but chose to go to Austria anyway "to give a lecture to a far-right student fraternity".[227] Although he pleaded guilty to the charge, Irving said he had been "mistaken", and had changed his opinions on the Holocaust. "I said that then, based on my knowledge at the time, but by 1991 when I came across the Eichmann papers, I wasn't saying that anymore and I wouldn't say that now. The Nazis did murder millions of Jews."[228] Irving served 13 months of a 3-year sentence in an Austrian prison, including the period between his arrest and conviction, and was deported in early 2007.[227] The episode sparked intense international debate over the limits of freedom of speech. Upon hearing of Irving's sentence, Lipstadt said, "I am not happy when censorship wins, and I don't believe in winning battles via censorship…. The way of fighting Holocaust deniers is with history and with truth."[228]

According to CNNupon Irving's return to the UK, he "vow[ed] to repeat views denying the Holocaust that led to his conviction" stating he felt "no need any longer to show remorse" for his Holocaust views.[229]

Genocide denials[edit]

Other acts of genocide have met similar attempts to deny and minimize them. Gregory H. Stanton, formerly of the US State Department and the founder of Genocide Watch, lists denial as the final stage of a genocide development: "Denial is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims."[230]

Notable Holocaust deniers[edit]

See also[edit]

Holocaust:

Other sources:

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ *"Holocaust Denial and Distortion", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website. Accessed September 28, 2017. "Holocaust denial is an attempt to negate the established facts of the Nazi genocide of European Jewry. Holocaust denial and distortion are forms of antisemitism. They are generally motivated by hatred of Jews and build on the claim that the Holocaust was invented or exaggerated by Jews as part of a plot to advance Jewish interests."
  2. ^ "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust? How do we know? Do we have their names?", The Holocaust Resource Center Faqs, Yad Vashem website. Accessed February 17, 2011. See also appropriate section of the Holocaust article for the death toll.
  3. ^ a b Key elements of Holocaust denial:
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term 'Holocaust denial'. Holocaust deniers, or 'revisionists', as they call themselves, question all three major points of definition of the Nazi Holocaust. First, they contend that, while mass murders of Jews did occur (although they dispute both the intentionality of such murders as well as the supposed deservedness of these killings), there was no official Nazi policy to murder Jews. Second, and perhaps most prominently, they contend that there were no homicidal gas chambers, particularly at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where mainstream historians believe over 1 million Jews were murdered, primarily in gas chambers. And third, Holocaust deniers contend that the death toll of European Jews during World War II was well below 6 million. Deniers float numbers anywhere between 300,000 and 1.5 million, as a general rule. " Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "In part III we directly address the three major foundations upon which Holocaust denial rests, including … the claim that gas chambers and crematoria were used not for mass extermination but rather for delousing clothing and disposing of people who died of disease and overwork; … the claim that the six million figure is an exaggeration by an order of magnitude—that about six hundred thousand, not six million, died at the hands of the Nazis; … the claim that there was no intention on the part of the Nazis to exterminate European Jewry and that the Holocaust was nothing more than the unfortunate by-product of the vicissitudes of war." Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman. Denying History: who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 3.
    • "Holocaust Denial: Claims that the mass extermination of the Jews by the Nazis never happened; that the number of Jewish losses has been greatly exaggerated; that the Holocaust was not systematic nor a result of an official policy; or simply that the Holocaust never took place." What is Holocaust Denial Archived February 16, 2005, at Archive.is, Yad Vashem website, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Among the untruths routinely promoted are the claims that no gas chambers existed at Auschwitz, that only 600,000 Jews were killed rather than six million, and that Hitler had no murderous intentions toward Jews or other groups persecuted by his government." Holocaust Denial, Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
    • "In general, Holocaust denial consists of four central points: minimization of numbers killed, denial of use of gassing, denial of the systematic nature of the genocide, and claims that the evidence was fabricated, above all after the war." Mark M. Hull, Vera Moynes. Masquerade: Treason, the Holocaust, and an Irish ImpostorUniversity of Oklahoma Press, 2017, p. 181. ISBN 978-0-80615836-5
    • "According to the deniers, the Nazis did not murder six million Jews, the notion of homicidal gas chambers is a myth, and any deaths of Jews that did occur under the Nazis were the result of wartime privations, not of systematic persecution and state-organised mass murder." Deborah Lipstadt. "Denying the Holocaust", History, BBC Online. Retrieved June 7, 2018.

  4. ^ a b c d e f "The kinds of assertions made in Holocaust-denial material include the following:
    • Several hundred thousand rather than approximately six million Jews died during the war.
    • Scientific evidence proves that gas chambers could not have been used to kill large numbers of people.
    • The Nazi command had a policy of deporting Jews, not exterminating them.
    • Some deliberate killings of Jews did occur, but were carried out by the peoples of Eastern Europe rather than the Nazis.
    • Jews died in camps of various kinds, but did so as the result of hunger and disease (most died to the unavailability of food due to allied bombings). The Holocaust is a myth created by the Allies for propaganda purposes, and subsequently nurtured by the Jews for their own ends.
    • Errors and inconsistencies in survivors' testimonies point to their essential unreliability.
    • Alleged documentary evidence of the Holocaust, from photographs of concentration camp victims to Anne Frank's diary, is fabricated.
    • The confessions of former Nazis to war crimes were extracted through torture." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved December 18, 2006.

  5. ^ Rossoliński-Liebe, Grzegorz (2012). "Debating, obfuscating and disciplining the Holocaust: Post-Soviet historical discourses on the OUN–UPA and other nationalist movements". East European Jewish Affairs. 42 (3): 199–241. doi:10.1080/13501674.2012.730732. In general, post-Soviet Holocaust denial has differed from Holocaust denial in the style of David Irving or Ernst Zündel. In post-Soviet space, the Holocaust has not usually been denied as such and post-Soviet radical right activists did not question the existence of gas chambers in Auschwitz, or the anti-Jewish politics of Nazi Germany. Instead, nationalist post-Soviet discourses denied some of the national or regional elements of the Holocaust, like, for example, the contribution of different nationalist organizations or armies to it, or very frequently the participation of local populations in pogroms and other forms of anti-Jewish violence.
  6. ^ Denial vs. "revisionism":
    • "This is the phenomenon of what has come to be known as 'revisionism', 'negationism', or 'Holocaust denial,' whose main characteristic is either an outright rejection of the very veracity of the Nazi genocide of the Jews, or at least a concerted attempt to minimize both its scale and importance…. It is just as crucial, however, to distinguish between the wholly objectionable politics of denial and the fully legitimate scholarly revision of previously accepted conventional interpretations of any historical event, including the Holocaust." Bartov, Omer. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation and AftermathRoutledge, pp.11–12. Bartov is John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History at the Watson Institute, and is regarded as one of the world's leading authorities on genocide ("Omer Bartov" Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., The Watson Institute for International Studies).
    • "The two leading critical exposés of Holocaust denial in the United States were written by historians Deborah Lipstadt (1993) and Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman (2000). These scholars make a distinction between historical revisionism and denial. Revisionism, in their view, entails a refinement of existing knowledge about an historical event, not a denial of the event itself, that comes through the examination of new empirical evidence or a reexamination or reinterpretation of existing evidence. Legitimate historical revisionism acknowledges a 'certain body of irrefutable evidence' or a 'convergence of evidence' that suggest that an event—like the black plague, American slavery, or the Holocaust—did in fact occur (Lipstadt 1993:21; Shermer & Grobman 200:34). Denial, on the other hand, rejects the entire foundation of historical evidence…." Ronald J. Berger. Fathoming the Holocaust: A Social Problems ApproachAldine Transaction, 2002, ISBN 0-202-30670-4, p. 154.
    • "At this time, in the mid-1970s, the specter of Holocaust Denial (masked as 'revisionism') had begun to raise its head in Australia…." Bartrop, Paul R. "A Little More Understanding: The Experience of a Holocaust Educator in Australia" in Samuel Totten, Steven Leonard Jacobs, Paul R Bartrop. Teaching about the HolocaustPraeger/Greenwood, 2004, p. xix. ISBN 0-275-98232-7
    • "Pierre Vidal-Naquet urges that denial of the Holocaust should not be called 'revisionism' because 'to deny history is not to revise it'. Les Assassins de la Memoire. Un Eichmann de papier et autres essays sur le revisionisme (The Assassins of Memory—A Paper-Eichmann and Other Essays on Revisionism) 15 (1987)." Cited in Roth, Stephen J. "Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law" in the Israel Yearbook on Human RightsVolume 23, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2581-8, p. 215.
    • "This essay describes, from a methodological perspective, some of the inherent flaws in the 'revisionist' approach to the history of the Holocaust. It is not intended as a polemic, nor does it attempt to ascribe motives. Rather, it seeks to explain the fundamental error in the 'revisionist' approach, as well as why that approach of necessity leaves no other choice. It concludes that 'revisionism' is a misnomer because the facts do not accord with the position it puts forward and, more importantly, its methodology reverses the appropriate approach to historical investigation…. 'Revisionism' is obliged to deviate from the standard methodology of historical pursuit, because it seeks to mold facts to fit a preconceived result; it denies events that have been objectively and empirically proved to have occurred; and because it works backward from the conclusion to the facts, thus necessitating the distortion and manipulation of those facts where they differ from the preordained conclusion (which they almost always do). In short, 'revisionism' denies something that demonstrably happened, through methodological dishonesty." McFee, Gordon. "Why 'Revisionism' Isn't", The Holocaust History Project, May 15, 1999. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
    • "Holocaust denial can be a particularly insidious form of antisemitism precisely because it often tries to disguise itself as something quite different: as genuine scholarly debate (in the pages, for example, of the innocuous-sounding Journal for Historical Review). Holocaust deniers often refer to themselves as 'revisionists', in an attempt to claim legitimacy for their activities. There are, of course, a great many scholars engaged in historical debates about the Holocaust whose work should not be confused with the output of the Holocaust deniers. Debate continues about such subjects as, for example, the extent and nature of ordinary Germans' involvement in and knowledge of the policy of genocide, and the timing of orders given for the extermination of the Jews. However, the valid endeavour of historical revisionism, which involves the re-interpretation of historical knowledge in the light of newly emerging evidence, is a very different task from that of claiming that the essential facts of the Holocaust, and the evidence for those facts, are fabrications." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "The deniers' selection of the name revisionist to describe themselves is indicative of their basic strategy of deceit and distortion and of their attempt to portray themselves as legitimate historians engaged in the traditional practice of illuminating the past. For historians, in fact, the name revisionism has a resonance that is perfectly legitimate – it recalls the controversial historical school known as World War I 'revisionists', who argued that the Germans were unjustly held responsible for the war and that consequently the Versailles treaty was a politically misguided document based on a false premise. Thus the deniers link themselves to a specific historiographic tradition of reevaluating the past. Claiming the mantle of the World War I revisionists and denying they have any objective other than the dissemination of the truth constitute a tactical attempt to acquire an intellectual credibility that would otherwise elude them." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust – The Growing Assault on Truth and MemoryPenguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 25.

  7. ^ a b Refer to themselves as revisionists:
    • "The deniers' selection of the name revisionist to describe themselves is indicative of their basic strategy of deceit and distortion and of their attempt to portray themselves as legitimate historians engaged in the traditional practice of illuminating the past." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust—The Growing Assault on Truth and MemoryPenguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 25.
    • "Dressing themselves in pseudo-academic garb, they have adopted the term 'revisionism' in order to mask and legitimate their enterprise." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Holocaust deniers often refer to themselves as 'revisionists', in an attempt to claim legitimacy for their activities. There are, of course, a great many scholars engaged in historical debates about the Holocaust whose work should not be confused with the output of the Holocaust deniers. Debate continues about such subjects as, for example, the extent and nature of ordinary Germans' involvement in and knowledge of the policy of genocide, and the timing of orders given for the extermination of the Jews. However, the valid endeavour of historical revisionism, which involves the re-interpretation of historical knowledge in the light of newly emerging evidence, is a very different task from that of claiming that the essential facts of the Holocaust, and the evidence for those facts, are fabrications." "The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.", JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.

  8. ^ a b Predetermined conclusion:
    • "'Revisionism' is obliged to deviate from the standard methodology of historical pursuit because it seeks to mold facts to fit a preconceived result, it denies events that have been objectively and empirically proved to have occurred, and because it works backward from the conclusion to the facts, thus necessitating the distortion and manipulation of those facts where they differ from the preordained conclusion (which they almost always do). In short, 'revisionism' denies something that demonstrably happened, through methodological dishonesty." McFee, Gordon. "Why 'Revisionism' Isn't", The Holocaust History Project, May 15, 1999. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
    • Alan L. Berger, "Holocaust Denial: Tempest in a Teapot, or Storm on the Horizon?", in Zev Garber and Richard Libowitz (eds), Peace, in Deed: Essays in Honor of Harry James CargasAtlanta: Scholars Press, 1998, p. 154.

  9. ^ A hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews:
    • "The title of App's major work on the Holocaust, The Six Million Swindleis informative because it implies on its very own the existence of a conspiracy of Jews to perpetrate a hoax against non-Jews for monetary gain." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • Another belief of deniers is the death of the millions of Jews was caused by sickness and disease."Holocaust Denial and Distortion". Retrieved 6 November 2013.
    • "Jews are thus depicted as manipulative and powerful conspirators who have fabricated myths of their own suffering for their own ends. According to the Holocaust deniers, by forging evidence and mounting a massive propaganda effort, the Jews have established their lies as 'truth' and reaped enormous rewards from doing so: for example, in making financial claims on Germany and acquiring international support for Israel." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Why, we might ask the deniers, if the Holocaust did not happen would any group concoct such a horrific story? Because, some deniers claim, there was a conspiracy by Zionists to exaggerate the plight of Jews during the war in order to finance the state of Israel through war reparations." Michael Shermer & Alex Grobman. Denying History: who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 106.
    • "Since its inception … the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States Archived June 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The central assertion for the deniers is that Jews are not victims but victimizers. They 'stole' billions in reparations, destroyed Germany's good name by spreading the 'myth' of the Holocaust, and won international sympathy because of what they claimed had been done to them. In the paramount miscarriage of injustice, they used the world's sympathy to 'displace' another people so that the state of Israel could be established. This contention relating to the establishment of Israel is a linchpin of their argument." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust – The Growing Assault on Truth and MemoryPenguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 27.
    • "They [Holocaust deniers] picture a vast shadowy conspiracy that controls and manipulates the institutions of education, culture, the media and government in order to disseminate a pernicious mythology. The purpose of this Holocaust mythology, they assert, is the inculcation of a sense of guilt in the white, Western Christian world. Those who can make others feel guilty have power over them and can make them do their bidding. This power is used to advance an international Jewish agenda centered in the Zionist enterprise of the State of Israel." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Deniers argue that the manufactured guilt and shame over a mythological Holocaust led to Western, specifically United States, support for the establishment and sustenance of the Israeli state – a sustenance that costs the American taxpayer over three billion dollars per year. They assert that American taxpayers have been and continue to be swindled…." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's LouisianaUniversity of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445

  10. ^ Antisemitic:
    • "Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include … denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust)." "Working Definition of Antisemitism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2011.  (33.8 KB)European Fundamental Rights Agency
    • "It would elevate their antisemitic ideology – which is what Holocaust denial is – to the level of responsible historiography – which it is not." Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the HolocaustISBN 0-14-024157-4, p. 11.
    • "The denial of the Holocaust is among the most insidious forms of anti-Semitism…." Roth, Stephen J. "Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law" in the Israel Yearbook on Human RightsVolume 23, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2581-8, p. 215.
    • "Holocaust denial can be a particularly insidious form of antisemitism precisely because it often tries to disguise itself as something quite different: as genuine scholarly debate (in the pages, for example, of the innocuous-sounding Journal for Historical Review)." "The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.", JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "This books treats several of the myths that have made antisemitism so lethal…. In addition to these historic myths, we also treat the new, maliciously manufactured myth of Holocaust denial, another groundless belief that is used to stir up Jew-hatred." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the presentPalgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, p. 3.
    • "One predictable strand of Arab Islamic antisemitism is Holocaust denial…." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the presentPalgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, p. 10.
    • "Anti-Semitism, in the form of Holocaust denial, had been experienced by just one teacher when working in a Catholic school with large numbers of Polish and Croatian students." Geoffrey Short, Carole Ann Reed. Issues in Holocaust EducationAshgate Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7546-4211-9, p. 71.
    • "Indeed, the task of organized antisemitism in the last decade of the century has been the establishment of Holocaust Revisionism – the denial that the Holocaust occurred." Stephen Trombley, "antisemitism", The Norton Dictionary of Modern ThoughtW. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0-393-04696-6, p. 40.
    • "After the Yom Kippur War an apparent reappearance of antisemitism in France troubled the tranquility of the community; there were several notorious terrorist attacks on synagogues, Holocaust revisionism appeared, and a new antisemitic political right tried to achieve respectability." Howard K. Wettstein, Diasporas and Exiles: Varieties of Jewish IdentityUniversity of California Press, 2002, ISBN 0-520-22864-2, p. 169.
    • "Holocaust denial is a convenient polemical substitute for anti-semitism." Igounet, Valérie. "Holocaust denial is part of a strategy", Le Monde diplomatiqueMay 1998.
    • "Holocaust denial is a contemporary form of the classic anti-Semitic doctrine of the evil, manipulative and threatening world Jewish conspiracy." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "In a number of countries, in Europe as well as in the United States, the negation or gross minimization of the Nazi genocide of Jews has been the subject of books, essay and articles. Should their authors be protected by freedom of speech? The European answer has been in the negative: such writings are not only a perverse form of anti-semitism but also an aggression against the dead, their families, the survivors and society at large." Roger Errera, "Freedom of speech in Europe", in Georg Nolte, European and US ConstitutionalismCambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-85401-6, pp. 39–40.
    • "Particularly popular in Syria is Holocaust denial, another staple of Arab anti-Semitism that is sometimes coupled with overt sympathy for Nazi Germany." Efraim Karsh, Rethinking the Middle EastRoutledge, 2003, ISBN 0-7146-5418-3, p. 104.
    • "Holocaust denial is a new form of anti-Semitism, but one that hinges on age-old motifs." Dinah Shelton, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against HumanityMacmillan Reference, 2005, p. 45.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's LouisianaUniversity of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445.
    • "Since its inception … the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States Archived June 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The primary motivation for most deniers is anti-Semitism, and for them the Holocaust is an infuriatingly inconvenient fact of history. After all, the Holocaust has generally been recognized as one of the most terrible crimes that ever took place, and surely the very emblem of evil in the modern age. If that crime was a direct result of anti-Semitism taken to its logical end, then anti-Semitism itself, even when expressed in private conversation, is inevitably discredited among most people. What better way to rehabilitate anti-Semitism, make anti-Semitic arguments seem once again respectable in civilized discourse and even make it acceptable for governments to pursue anti-Semitic policies than by convincing the world that the great crime for which anti-Semitism was blamed simply never happened – indeed, that it was nothing more than a frame-up invented by the Jews, and propagated by them through their control of the media? What better way, in short, to make the world safe again for anti-Semitism than by denying the Holocaust?" Reich, Walter. "Erasing the Holocaust", The New York TimesJuly 11, 1993.
    • "There is now a creeping, nasty wave of anti-Semitism … insinuating itself into our political thought and rhetoric…. The history of the Arab world … is disfigured … by a whole series of outmoded and discredited ideas, of which the notion that the Jews never suffered and that the Holocaust is an obfuscatory confection created by the elders of Zion is one that is acquiring too much, far too much, currency." Edward Said, "A Desolation, and They Called it Peace" in Those who forget the pastRon Rosenbaum (ed), Random House 2004, p. 518.

  11. ^ Conspiracy theory:
    • "While appearing on the surface as a rather arcane pseudo-scholarly challenge to the well-established record of Nazi genocide during the Second World War, Holocaust denial serves as a powerful conspiracy theory uniting otherwise disparate fringe groups…." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term 'Holocaust denial.'" Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Since its inception … the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States Archived June 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.

  12. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah (1993) Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory New York: Penguin Books p.25. ISBN 0-452-27274-2
  13. ^ "The two leading critical exposés of Holocaust denial in the United States were written by historians Deborah Lipstadt (1993) and Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman (2000). These scholars make a distinction between historical revisionism and denial. Revisionism, in their view, entails a refinement of existing knowledge about a historical event, not a denial of the event itself, that comes through the examination of new empirical evidence or a reexamination or reinterpretation of existing evidence. Legitimate historical revisionism acknowledges a 'certain body of irrefutable evidence' or a 'convergence of evidence' that suggest that an event—like the black plague, American slavery, or the Holocaust—did, in fact, occur (Lipstadt 1993:21; Shermer & Grobman 200:34). Denial, on the other hand, rejects the entire foundation of historical evidence…."
  14. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah E. (1994). Denying the Holocaust: the growing assault on truth and memory (reprint ed.). Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-27274-3.
  15. ^ Deborah E. Lipstadt (18 December 2012). Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. Simon và Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-2748-6. Modern Holocaust denial draws inspiration from a variety of sources. Among them is a legitimate historical tradition that was highly critical of government policies and believed that history was being used to justify these policies. The deniers consider themselves heirs of a group of influential American historians who were deeply disturbed by American involvement in World War I. These respected scholars, who called themselves revisionists, would have been appalled to learn of the purposes to which their arguments were put.
  16. ^ Niewyk, Donald L., ed. (1992). "1: Introduction". The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. D. C. Heath and Company. tr. 7. ISBN 9780618214624.
  17. ^ See Alain Finkielkraut, Mary Byrd Kelly, Richard J. Golsan. The Future of a Negation: Reflections on the Question of Genocide. University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
  18. ^ Koenraad Elst. Chapter One – Negationism in General Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Negationism in India: Concealing the Record of IslamThe Voice of India2002.
  19. ^ a b Klarsfeld, Serge (1996). "French Children of the Holocaust: A Memorial". New York: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814726624. LCCN 96031206. OCLC 35029709.p. xiii
  20. ^ a b Arad, Yitzhak (1984). "Yad Vashem Studies XVI Operation Reinhard: Extermination Camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka" (PDF): 205–239.
  21. ^ Ezergailis, Andrew, The Holocaust in Latvia 1941–1944 – The Missing Centerpages 4–7, 239–270, Historical Institute of Latvia (in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) Riga 1996 ISBN 9984-9054-3-8
  22. ^ Nizkor Project page on Himmler Posen speech Contains both the IMT original transcription of the speech in German, a corrected Nizkor project transcription, original IMT and corrected Nizkor project translation, recording and analysis of actual speech, and link to examples showing treatment of speech by Holocaust deniers.
  23. ^ Office of the United States Chief of Counsel For Prosecution of Axis Criminality, ed. (1946). "Partial Translation Of Document 1919-PS Speech of the Reichsfuehrer-SS at the Meeting of SS Major-Generals at Posen, October 4th, 1943". International Military Trials – Nurnberg – Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression Volume IV (PDF). 4. Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office. pp. 563–564. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-04. Retrieved 2015-04-02. I also want to talk to you, quite frankly, on a very grave matter. Among ourselves, it should be mentioned quite frankly, and yet we will never speak of it publicly. Just as we did not hesitate on June 30th, 1934 to do the duty we were bidden, and stand comrades who had lapsed, up against the wall and shoot them, so we have never spoken about it and will never speak of it. It was that tact which is a matter of course and which I am glad to say, is inherent in us, that made us never discuss it among ourselves, never to speak of it. It appalled everyone, and yet everyone was certain that he would do it the next time if such orders are issued and if it is necessary I mean the clearing out of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish race. … Most of you must know what it means when 100 corpses are lying side by side, or 500 or 1,000…. This is a page of glory in our history which has never been written and is never to be written…
  24. ^ "The History of the Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation (CDJC)". Archived from the original on March 16, 2015.
  25. ^ a b Jockusch, Laura (2012-10-11). "Collect and Record! Jewish Holocaust Documentation in Early Postwar Europe". Nhà xuất bản Đại học Oxford. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764556.001.0001. ISBN 9780199764556. as quoted in Jockusch, Laura. "Khurbn Forshung (destruction research)– Jewish Historical Commissions in Europe, 1943–1949". academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  26. ^ a b Mazor, Michel; Weinberg, David (2007), "Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine (CDJC)", in Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred, Encyclopedia JudaicaGale Virtual Reference Library, 4 (2 ed.), Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, p. 547
  27. ^ Hobbs, Joseph Patrick; Eisenhower, Dwight D.; Marshall, George Catlett (12 May 1999). Dear General: Eisenhower's Wartime Letters to Marshall. Baltimore: Nhà xuất bản Đại học Johns Hopkins. ISBN 0801862191.
  28. ^ April 12, 1945,
  29. ^ Eisenhower, Dwight D., Crusade in Europepp. 409–10, Doubleday, New York, 1948 (no ISBN for this edition)
  30. ^ Hobbs, Joseph Patrick; Eisenhower, Dwight D.; Marshall, George Catlett (12 May 1999). Dear General: Eisenhower's Wartime Letters to Marshall. Baltimore: Nhà xuất bản Đại học Johns Hopkins. tr. 223. ISBN 0801862191.
  31. ^ Wright, Quincy (1946). "The Nuremberg Trial". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 246: 72–80. doi:10.1177/000271624624600113. JSTOR 1025134. (Subscription required (help)).
  32. ^ Bensoussan, Georges (2008). David Bankier; Dan Mikhman, eds. "Holocaust Historiography in Context: Emergence, Challenges, Polemics and Achievements". Berghahn Books. pp. 245–254. ISBN 9789653083264. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  33. ^ "Shaping an Awareness of the Holocaust in Israeli and World Public Opinion". yadvashem.org. 2015. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2015-06-26. In the annals of public awareness of the Holocaust period, nothing rivals the Eichmann trial as a milestone and turning point, whose impact is evident to this day. The trial introduced the Holocaust into the historical, educational, legal and cultural discourse, not merely in Israel and the Jewish world, but on the consciousness of all peoples of the world. Sixteen years after the end of the Holocaust, it focused attention upon the account of the suffering and torment of the Jewish people, as recounted to the judges. Its powerful, and one could claim, revolutionary, consequences continue right up to the present day.
  34. ^ Shandler, Jeffrey (4 February 1999). "4. The Man in the Glass Box". While America Watches : Televising the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. tr. 127. ISBN 978-0-19-518258-3. Retrieved 26 June 2015. The Eichmann case is widely cited as a[sic] marking a threshold in American awareness of the Holocaust, generating a 'renewed engagement' and 'heightened historical consciousness' as well as serving as a catalyst for a spate of American Holocaust literature, television programs, and feature films.
  35. ^ a b c Cesarani, David (2005) [2004]. Eichmann: His Life and Crimes. London: Vintage. pp. 252, 254–5, 325–7. ISBN 978-0-09-944844-0.
  36. ^ Birn, Ruth Bettina (2011). "Fifty Years After: A Critical Look at the Eichmann Trial" (PDF). Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law. 44: 443–473. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  37. ^ Shandler, Jeffrey (1999). While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust. Oxford; New York: Nhà xuất bản Đại học Oxford. tr. 93. ISBN 0-19-511935-5. The trial and the surrounding media coverage sparked renewed interest in wartime events, and the resulting increase in publication of memoirs and scholarly works helped raise public awareness of the Holocaust.
  38. ^ Claudio Fogu; Wulf Kansteiner; Todd Presner (17 October 2016). Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture. Nhà xuất bản Đại học Harvard. tr. 68. ISBN 978-0-674-97051-9.
  39. ^ a b "The corpse factory and the birth of fake news". BBC News. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  40. ^ a b Neander, Joachim, The German Corpse Factory. The Master Hoax of British Propaganda in the First World WarSaarland University Press, 2013, pp.8–9.
  41. ^ a b Stephen E. Atkins (2009). Holocaust Denial as an International Movement. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34538-8. Holocaust denial has played an important role in the revitalization of the Neo-Nazi movement. There was a smaller but nonetheless vocal number of supporters in other Western European countries and the United States. These neo-Nazis realized that a Hitlerite regime was impossible, but a reasonable facsimile was possible in the future. These neo-Nazis and their allies realized that any rehabilitation of Nazism could be accomplished only by discrediting the Holocaust.
  42. ^ Herwig, Holger "Clio Deceived" pp. 5–44 from International SecurityVolume 12, Issue 2, Fall 1987, pp. 22–23 & 26
  43. ^ Herwig, Holger "Clio Deceived" pp. 5–44 from International SecurityVolume 12, Issue 2, Fall 1987, pp. 21–23 & 26
  44. ^ a b Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the Holocaust (New York: Free Press, 1993) p. 75.
  45. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the HolocaustFree Press: New York, 1993, pp. 73–74.
  46. ^ a b c Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the Holocaust (New York: Free Press, 1993) p. 74.
  47. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the HolocaustFree Press: New York, 1993 page 74.
  48. ^ a b Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and MemoryNew York : Free Press ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York ; Oxford : Maxwell Macmillan International, 1993 page 71
  49. ^ Gottfired, Ted: Deniers Of The Holocaust: Who They Are, What They Do, Why They Do It (Twenty-First Century Books, 2001). Page 29
  50. ^ Deborah E. Lipstadt, History on TrialHarcourt:2005 ISBN 0-06-059376-8
  51. ^ Knight, Peter (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. tr. 322. ISBN 978-1576078129.
  52. ^ a b Atkins, Stephen E. (2009). Austin J. App and Holocaust Denial. Holocaust denial as an international movement. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. pp. 153–55. ISBN 0-313-34539-2.
  53. ^ Carlos C. Huerta and Dafna Shiffman-Huerta "Holocaust Denial Literature: Its Place in Teaching the Holocaust", in Rochelle L. Millen. New Perspectives on the Holocaust: A Guide for Teachers and ScholarsNYU Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8147-5540-2, p. 189.
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    • "Jews are thus depicted as manipulative and powerful conspirators who have fabricated myths of their own suffering for their own ends. According to the Holocaust deniers, by forging evidence and mounting a massive propaganda effort, the Jews have established their lies as 'truth' and reaped enormous rewards from doing so: for example, in making financial claims on Germany and acquiring international support for Israel." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Why, we might ask the deniers, if the Holocaust did not happen would any group concoct such a horrific story? Because, some deniers claim, there was a conspiracy by Zionists to exaggerate the plight of Jews during the war in order to finance the state of Israel through war reparations." Michael Shermer & Alex Grobman. Denying History: who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 106.
    • "They [Holocaust deniers] picture a vast shadowy conspiracy that controls and manipulates the institutions of education, culture, the media and government in order to disseminate a pernicious mythology. The purpose of this Holocaust mythology, they assert, is the inculcation of a sense of guilt in the white, Western Christian world. Those who can make others feel guilty have power over them and can make them do their bidding. This power is used to advance an international Jewish agenda centered in the Zionist enterprise of the State of Israel." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's LouisianaUniversity of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445.

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    • "The denier movement gained some of its first supporters in France. One of these, Maurice Bardèche, presented one of the deniers' fundamental arguments, namely that the Holocaust was caused by the Jews themselves. The Jews were the enemies of Germany and were treated accordingly. Bardèche was also one of the first to question the authenticity of the source material. For instance, he strongly doubted that the gas chambers at Auschwitz had been used to kill people. Instead, he advanced the proposition that they had been used for disinfecting clothes – since then one of the deniers' most persistent allegations." Holocaust denial: Historical view Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2002. Retrieved 1 June 2007.

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  281. ^ "A German court sentenced Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf to two and a half years in prison for inciting racial hatred in publications and Web sites which "systematically" called into question the Nazi genocide." "German Holocaust Denier Imprisoned for Inciting Racial Hatred", Deutsche WelleFebruary 16, 2007.
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    • "a transnational ultra-leftist movement based in Italy and supported by orthodox Communists as well as by Holocaust denier Serge Thion." France – 2004 Archived 2012-11-19 at the Wayback Machine., Stephen Roth Institute, Antisemitism and Racism, Annual Reports, Country Reports. Retrieved 27 May 2007.
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Bibliography

About Holocaust denial
  • Richard J. Evans, In Defense of HistoryNew York: Norton, 1999.
  • Richard J. Evans, Lying About Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving TrialBasic Books, 2002 (ISBN 0-465-02153-0). As well as the story of the Irving case, this is an excellent case study on historical research.
  • Charles Gray, The Irving JudgmentPenguin, 2000 (ISBN 0-14-029899-1). Actual text of the judgment in the Irving case.
  • D. D. Guttenplan, The Holocaust on TrialNorton 2002
  • Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and MemoryPlume (The Penguin Group), 1994. Debunking Holocaust revisionism.
  • Donald L. Niewyk, ed. The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of InterpretationD.C. Heath and Company, 1992.
  • Robert Jan van Pelt, The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial (ISBN 0-253-34016-0).
  • Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman, Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It? University of California Press (ISBN 0-520-23469-3).
  • Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our TimeFreeman, New York 1997 (ISBN 0-8050-7089-3).
  • Shermer, Michael (1998). "Holocaust Revisionism Update: David Cole Recants/David Irving Says Churchill Knew About Pearl Harbor". Skeptic. 6 (1): 23–25.
  • Mr. Death, a documentary by Errol Morris.
  • Abbot, A (1994). "Holocaust Denial Research Disclaimed". Nature. 368 (6471): 483. Bibcode:1994Natur.368..483A. doi:10.1038/368483a0.
  • John C. Zimmerman, Holocaust denial: demographics, testimonies, and ideologies Lanham, Md., University Press of America, 2000.
  • John C. Zimmerman, "Holocaust Denial". Los Angeles TimesJanuary 16, 2000, M4
  • Jean Claude Pressac: "Les carences et incohérences du Rapport Leuchter" Jour J., la lettre télégraphique juive12 December 1988.
  • Jean Claude Pressac, "Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers", The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, New York 1989
  • Jean Claude Pressac, Les Crématoires d'Auschwitz: La Machinerie Du Meurtre De MasseCNRS editions, Paris, 1993.
  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet, "Les assassins de la mémoire", Un Eichman de papierPostface de Gisèle Sapiro, Nouvelle édition revue et augmentée, La Découverte, Paris, 2005, ISBN 2-7071-4545-9.
  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet, "Qui sont les assassins de la mémoire?" in Réflexions sur le génocide. Les juifs, la mémoire et le présentvol. III. La Découverte 1995.
  • Brigitte Bailer-Galanda, Wilhelm Lasek, Amoklauf gegen die Wirklichkeit. NS-Verbrechen und revisionistische Geschichtsschreibung. Wien, 1992.
  • Wellers, George (1989). "A propos du "Rapport Leuchter" et les chambres à gaz d'Auschwitz". Le Monde Juif. 134.
  • Till Bastian, "Auschwitz und die «Auschwitz-Lüge». Massenmord und Geschichtsfälschung", Beck'sche Reihe München, 1994.
  • Francesco Germinario, Estranei alla democrazia. Negazionismo e antisemitismo nella destra radicale italiana BFS Editore, Pisa, 2001.
  • Francesco Rotondi, Luna di miele ad Auschwitz. Riflessioni sul negazionismo della ShoahEdizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2005.
  • Flores M., Storia, Verità e GiustiziaMondadori, Milano, 2001.
  • Valentina Pisanty, L'irritante questione delle camere a gas. Logica del negazionismoBompiani, Milano, 1998.
  • Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust: Who They Are, What They Do, Why They Do ItBrookfield Conn Twenty-First Century Books, 2001.
  • Henry Rousso, Le dossier Lyon III: le rapport sur le racisme et le négationnisme à l'université Jean-MoulinParis, 2004.
  • Nadine Fresco "Les redresseurs de morts. Chambres à gaz: la bonne nouvelle. Comment on révise l'histoire", Les Temps Modernes407, June 1980.
  • Nadine Fresco, The Denial of the Dead On the Faurisson Affair 1981.
  • Georges Bensoussan "Négationnisme et antisionnisme: récurrences et convergences des discours du rejet", Revue d'histoire de la Shoah166, May–August 1999. Centre de documentation juive contemporaine 1999.
  • Valérie Igounet, "Dossier «Les terroirs de l'extrême-droite»: Un négationnisme stratégique", Le Monde diplomatique (May 1998).
  • Valérie Igounet, Histoire du négationnisme en FranceParis, Le Seuil, 2000
  • Pierre Bridonneau, Oui, il faut parler des négationnistesÉditions du Cerf 1997.
  • Yehuda Bauer "A Past that Will Not Go Away". in The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck. Bloomington: Published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum by Indiana University Press, 1998, pp. 12–22.
  • Alan L. Berger, "Holocaust Denial: Tempest in a Teapot, or Storm on the Horizon?" in Peace, in Deed: Essays in Honor of Harry James Cargas. Ed. Zev Garber and Richard Libowitz. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998, pp. 31–45.
  • Joseph Dan, "Four Ways of Holocaust Denial". in Bruch und Kontinuität: Jüdisches Denken in der europäischen Geistesgeschichte. Ed. Eveline Goodman-Thau and Michael Daxner. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1995, pp. 39–46.
  • Patrick Finney "Ethics, Historical Relativism and Holocaust Denial." Rethinking History 2 (1998), pp. 359–369.
  • Markiewicz, Jan; Gubala, Wojciech; Labedz, Jerzy (1994). "A Study of the Cyanide Compounds Content in the Walls of the Gas Chambers in the Former Auschwitz & Birkenau Concentration Camps". Z Zagadnien Sqdowych. XXX.
  • Wayne Klein, "Truth's Turning: History and the Holocaust". In Postmodernism and the Holocaust. Ed. Alan Milchman and Alan Rosenberg. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1998, pp. 53–83.
  • Jonathan Petropoulos, "Holocaust Denial: A Generational Typology." In Lessons and Legacies III: Memory, Memorialization, and Denial. Ed. Peter Hayes. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1999.
  • Werner Wegner: "Keine Massenvergasungen in Auschwitz? Zur Kritik des Leuchter-Gutachtens", in: Die Schatten der Vergangenheit. Impulse zur Historisierung der Vergangenheithg. v. Uwe Backes, Eckhard Jesse und Rainer Zitelmann, Propyläen Verlag, Berlin 1990, S. pp. 450–476 (ISBN 3-549-07407-7).
  • Wicken, Stephen (2006). "Views of the Holocaust in Arab Media and Public Discourse" (PDF). Yale Journal of International Affairs: 103–15.
  • Jürgen Zarusky: "Leugnung des Holocaust. Die antisemitische Strategie nach Auschwitz. Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Schriften Aktuell – Amtliches Mitteilungsblatt". Jahrestagung 9./10. Nov. 1999, Marburg. Auch als Internet-Veröffentlichung (pdf-Dokument) erhältlich.
  • Martin Finkenberger/Horst Junginger (Hrsg.): Im Dienste der Lügen. Herbert Grabert (1901–1978) und seine Verlage. Aschaffenburg: Alibri-Verl., 2004 (ISBN 3-932710-76-2).
  • Thomas Wandres: Die Strafbarkeit des Auschwitz-Leugnens. Berlin 2000 (ISBN 3-428-10055-7).
  • "Holocaust Denial Literature: A Bibliography". Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  • "Who Denies the Holocaust And Why Do They Deny It?". Retrieved February 9, 2009.
By Holocaust deniers
  • Arthur R. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European JewryNewport Beach: Institute for Historical Review, 1994 (ISBN 0-9679856-9-2).
  • Faurisson, Robert, My Life As a RevisionistThe Journal of Historical Review, volume 9 no. 1 (Spring 1989), p. 5.
  • Ernst Gauss (Ed.), Dissecting the Holocaust: The Growing Critique of 'Truth' and 'Memory'Alabama: Theses & Dissertations Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-9679856-0-9). "Gauss" is a pseudonym for Germar Rudolf, the founder of "Theses & Dissertations Press."
  • Jürgen Graf, Der Holocaust auf dem Prüfstand1992.
  • Richard E. Harwood, Did Six Million Really Die?Noontide Press.
  • Michael Hoffman II, The Great Holocaust Trial(June 1985, 2nd Edition) (ISBN 0-939484-22-6).
  • Fred A. Leuchter, Robert Faurisson, Germar Rudolf, The Leuchter Reports: Critical EditionChicago, Theses & Dissertations Press, 2005 (ISBN 1-59148-015-9).
  • Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. is a 1999 documentary film by Errol Morris about execution technician Fred A. Leuchter.
  • Germar Rudolf, The Rudolf Report: Expert Report on Chemical and Technical Aspects of the 'Gas Chambers' of AuschwitzChicago: Theses & Dissertations Press, 2001.
  • "Syrian Holocaust Denial" by Mohammad Daoud, Syria Times September 6, 2000. Retrieved November 8, 2005.
  • "Anti-Semitism and Holocaust Denial in the Iranian Media" MEMRI Special Dispatch Series no 855, January 28, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2005.
  • "Palestinian Holocaust Denial" Reuven Paz, Peacewatch April 21, 2000. Retrieved November 8, 2005. At Archive.org

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